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Monthly DNA

07 Jul, 2022

16 Min Read


GS-II : Important reports Important reports


World Bank has released 'The Global Findex Report 2021'.

The Global Findex surveys over 125,000 adults in 123 economies during Covid-19 to better understand how people use formal and informal financial services and digital payment systems.

Finding of the report

Account Ownership

  • Account ownership worldwide has increased by 50 % to reach 76 % of the global adult population.
  • Recent growth in account ownership has been widespread across dozens of developing economies and most of the new accounts opened in two countries that is India and China.

Access to Formal Banking:

  • Large shares of the global population without formal banking (130 million and 230 million, respectively) lives in India and China because of their size.
  • Women are often excluded from formal banking services because they lack official forms of identification, do not own a mobile phone or other forms of technology, and have a lower financial capability.
  • 74 % of men had an account in developing countries whereas women are six points behind, accounting for 68 %.


  • 24 % of adults are unbanked globally. Lack of money is one of the main reasons and distance is a barrier for 31 % of unbanked adults.
  • People without an account at a financial institution or a mobile money service provider have been classified as unbanked.
  • Globally, 64 % of unbanked adults have primary education or less.
  • Worldwide, 36 % of unbanked adults said that financial services are too expensive and complicated

Covid-19 and Digital Payments:

  • Covid-19 pandemic increased the growth in the use of digital payments.
  • In developing countries in 2021, 18 % of adults paid utility bills directly from an account. About one-third of these paid bills were online for the first time.

Mobile Money:

  • Mobile money has become an enabler of financial inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa, especially for women.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is home to all 11 economies in which a larger share of adults-only had mobile money accounts rather than a normal bank account.

Financial providers helped expand financial Access:

  • Government, private players, and financial institutions helped expand financial access and usage among the unbanked by lowering the barriers and improving the infrastructure.
  • Financial inclusion has become a cornerstone for both short-term relief and sustainable recovery efforts since the Covid-19 pandemic.

Financial Worries:

  • Adults in developing countries are more likely to worry about finances than adults in high-income countries.
  • Concerns around medical expenses are highest in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where 64 % of adults are very worried, and the lowest in East Asia and the Pacific, where 38 % of adults are very worried about the medical expense.


As to move out of the pandemic and as governments seek to consolidate the momentum and expand access to digital banking services, policies must factor in protections for the most vulnerable section of society including women, the poor, and those with limited educational attainment or financial literacy. The gender gap in mobile access must be addressed to ensure equitable progress on financial inclusion.

Source: World Bank


GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment Biodiversity & Environment


Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has proposed the amendments in the Environment Protection Act, 1986.

The Environment Ministry has proposed to levy more fines and less imprisonment for environmental violations.

Present Clause in the Act:

  • Currently the act says that the violators will be punishable with imprisonment up to five years or with a fine up to one lakh or, both.
  • If the violation continues, an additional fine of up to 5000 for every single day during which such failure or contravention continues after the conviction was levied.
  • Even there is also a provision for a jail term that can be extended up to seven years.

Key amendments proposed in the Environmental Protection Act,1986

  • Decriminalization of the existing provisions of the EPA, 1986 to remove the fear of imprisonment for simple violations has been proposed by the Ministry.
  • It included the removal of imprisonment as a penalty for the "less severe’’ contraventions. Imprisonment will be replaced with one that only requires them to pay a fine.
  • The proposed fine, instead of imprisonment, are 5-500 time greater than those currently levied.
  • The serious violations of EPA which lead to grievous injury /loss of life shall be covered under the provision of the Indian Penal Code.
  • Instead of imprisonment, the amendments propose the creation of an Environmental Protection Fund in which the amount of penalty imposed by the Adjudicating Officer after adjudicating the damage to the environment shall be remitted.
  • The Central Government may prescribe how the Protection Fund shall be administered.
  • The removal of the prison term also applies to the Air act, which is the cornerstone legislation for dealing with air pollution, and the Water act which deals with violation of rules regarding water bodies.

The rationale behind the proposal:

  • To weed out fear of imprisonment for simple violations.
  • According to the Center for Science and Environment, the Indian courts took between 9-33 years to clear a backlog of cases for environmental violations.
  • In the starting of 2018, more than 45,000 cases were pending for trial and another 35,000 cases were added in that year, more than 90% of cases were pending for trial in five of the seven environment laws.


  • Increased fines can promote environmental protection and could also take care of public health from the toxicity produced by harmful human activity.
  • It will also help in the reduction of waste produced daily.
  • It will help to fight all types of pollution like air, water, land, soil, etc

Environmental Protection act 1986

The EPA came into force on November 19, 1986. The act establishes the framework for studying, planning, and implementing long-term requirements of environmental safety and laying down a system of speedy and adequate response to situations threatening the environment.

Objective: To provide the protection and improvement of the environment.


The main roots of the enactment of the EPA lie in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in June 1972, which is also known as the Stockholm Conference, in which India participated, to take appropriate steps for the improvement of the environment.

The Environment Protection Act implements the decisions and the point made at the Stockholm Conference.

Constitutional Provisions:

The EPA Act was enacted under:

  • Article 253 of the Indian Constitution provides for the enactment of legislation for giving effect to international agreements.
  • Article 48A of the Indian Constitution specifies that the State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
  • Article 51A further provides that every citizen shall protect the environment.

Powers of the Central Government:

  • EPA empowers the Central Government to establish authorities charged with the mandate of preventing environmental pollution in all its forms and tackling specific environmental problems that are peculiar to different parts of the country.
  • It authorizes the Central Government to Plan and executes a nationwide program for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution.
  • The Central Government also lay down standards for the quality of the environment in its various aspects like emission or discharge of environmental pollutants from various sources.
  • The Central government as per the Act has the power to direct the closure, prohibition, or regulation of any industry, operation, or process.
  • The act was last amended in the year 1991.

What is the drawback of the Environment Protection Act 1986??

  • Complete Centralization of the Act

A main drawback of the Act is its centralization. The vital powers are provided to the Centre and no powers are given to the state governments, which might end up in arbitrariness and vague decisions.

  • No Public Participation
  • The Act is also silent about public participation as regards environmental protection.
  • There is no provision for actively involving the citizens in environmental protection, checking arbitrariness and raising awareness and empathy towards the environment.

Environment protection must consider local people in its ambit as they are directly linked to its protection, conservation, and repercussion that arises due to neglect and loopholes in the legislation.

Source: The Hindu


GS-II : Governance Health


Recently, after coming into contact with Nairobi flies, approximately 100 students of an engineering college in East Sikkim have reported skin infections.

What are Nairobi Flies?

It's a species of insect native to East Africa. Nairobi flies, also known as Kenyan flies or dragon bugs, are small, beetle-like insects that belong to two species:

  • Paederus Eximius.
  • Paederus sabaeus.

They are orange and black in color and live in areas with high rainfall, as has been seen in Sikkim in recent weeks.

Like most insects, they are attracted to Bright lights.

Major outbreak

  • They have occurred in Kenya and other parts of Eastern Africa. In 1998, heavy rain brought a large number of insects into the area.
  • Outside Africa, several outbreaks have happened in India, Japan, and Paraguay

Effect on Human

  • It attacks pest that consumes crop and is beneficial for humans but when they come in contact with humans directly, they cause harm.
  • These files do not bite but if disturbed while sitting on anyone’s skin, they release a potent acidic substance that causes burn.

Measures to Protect

  • Sleeping under mosquito nets can help. If a fly lands on a person, then it should be gently brushed off and should not be disturbed to reduce the chances of it releasing Pederin, a toxic release by the fly.

Source: The Indian Express

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