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22 October, 2019

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Paper Topics Subject
GS-II NCRB REPORT
CHINA'S GROWING CLOUT AT THE UN
GS-III UN report on Lead content in paints
A FIX FOR GROWTH GAIN FROM FISCAL PAIN Economic Issues
GS-II :
NCRB REPORT

CONTEXT :

The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) released its 2017 data for crime in India on October 21.

What are the categories of the data?

The NCRB has introduced more than three dozen new categories and sub-categories of crimes under various heads.

At least four categories where significant diversification of data can be seen are –

Crimes against women and children

Atrocities against Dalits

Cases of corruption

Time taken by police and courts to take cases to their conclusion

For the first time, the NCRB has introduced categories of cyber crimes against women and children.

In the case of Dalits, the NCRB has for the first time published data on offences registered solely under the SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.

The further categorisation under this includes insult, land grab and social ostracism.

The NCRB has also recorded cases of disproportionate assets against public servants.

The other heads include abetment, criminal intimidation, simple hurt, credit/debit card and online frauds, Internet crimes through online gaming and kidnapping for begging among others.

Importantly, for the first time, the NCRB has dwelt on not just pendency of cases (with the police and courts) but also the period of such pendency.

KEY FINDINGS OF THE REPORT:

The data, delayed by about a year, presents some interesting findings.

Data that was supposed to be published under the new sub-heads of mob lynching, murder by influential people, killing ordered by khap panchayats and murder committed for religious reasons is missing.

A new category of offences under the aegis of "Anti-National Elements",shows that the maximum number of offences were committed by Left Wing Extremist (LEW) operatives, insurgents in the Northeast and terrorists.

Crime Registration and Rate:

In 2017, there was an increase of 3.6% in registration of cases over 2016.

Delhi witnessed the highest crime rate in the country with 1,050 Indian Penal Code (IPC) crime incidents per lakh of the city’s population.

This was over four times the national average of 238.

Crime Against Women:

The number of crimes committed against women increased by 6% over the year 2016.

Majority cases were registered under ‘Cruelty by Husband or His Relatives’ followed by ‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’.

The maximum cases were registered in Uttar Pradesh (UP) followed by Maharashtra and West Bengal.

Crime Against SC/STs:

The incidents registered under the Scheduled Caste Prevention of Atrocities Act saw an increase from 5,082 incidents reportedin 2016 to 5,775 in 2017.

Incidents of crime related to Scheduled Tribes dipped from 844 in 2016 to 720 in 2017.

Riots:

Out of the total 58,880 incidents of rioting reported, communal and sectarian riots accounted for 723 and 183 incidents respectively.

There were 805 riots due to caste conflict and 1909 riots due to political reasons.

Maximum incidents were reported from Bihar, followed by Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Cyber Crimes:

Fraudulent transactions and sexual exploitationwere the most reported cyber crimes in India in 2017.

Cyber fraudsaccounted for the highest number of individual reports on cybercrime, followed by cases of cybercrime in the form of sexual exploitation.

Assam,which has recorded higher number of cyber crimes than other states in the region, sexual exploitation and personal revenge were the prime reasons.

Bengaluru topped the listamong metropolitan cities across the country in terms of number of cyber crimes registered.

Bengaluru was followed by Mumabi and Jaipur.

Offences against the state:

As compared to 2016, there has been a 30 percent rise in incidents of offences against the state. Sedition, waging war against country and damage to public property are among the offences included under this category.

Interestingly, the maximum number of such offences were recorded from Haryana while the minimum number of such cases were recorded from Jammu and Kashmir(J&K).

Haryana registered 13 cases of sedition— second after Assam, which registered 19— while only one case of sedition was recorded in J&K.

NCRB :

NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators. It was set up based on the recommendation of the Task force,1985 and National Police Commission,1977 by merging the Directorate of Coordination and Police Computer (DCPC), Inter State Criminals Data Branch of CBI and Central Finger Print Bureau of CBI. Earlier Statistical Branch of Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D) was also merged with NCRB, but was later de-merged[2].

Mission

To Empower Indian Police with Information Technology and criminal Intelligence to enable them to uphold law and protect people. To provide leadership and excellence in crime analysis particularly for serious and organized crime.

Objectives

Create and maintain secure sharable National Databases on crimes and criminals for law enforcement agencies and promote their use for public service delivery.

Collect and process crime statistics at the national level and clearing house of information on crime and criminals both at National and International levels.

Lead and coordinate development of IT applications and create an enabling IT environment for Police organizations.

National repository of fingerprints of all criminals.

To evaluate, modernize and promote automation in State Crime Records Bureaux and State Finger Print Bureaux .

Training and capacity building in Police Forces in Information Technology and Finger Print Science.

 

Source: THE HINDU

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GS-II :
CHINA'S GROWING CLOUT AT THE UN


Context :

Beijing is actively seeking to use the UN platform to legitimize and spread its ideology.

Background:

Whether through specialized UN agencies or peacekeeping, China is facing to fill the vacuum in international leadership left by the withdrawal of US from multilateral fora , and taking advantage of local of convergence among the members of the Security council on many global issues.

How China has gained more legitimacy in the UN?

1. China has 8000 of its soldiers as standby under the UN peacekeeping force

2. China has increased monetary contributions to UN fivefold.

3. Mr. Xi has promised to take an active part in leading the reform of the global governance system.

Achievements of China :

China has been able to get Communist party officials to head more than a quarter of UN's specialized agencies including FAO, the Industrial Development Organisation, the International Civil Aviation Administration and the International Telecom Union.

China' ideologies:


1. It is pushing its ideology through the global platforms.


2. China argues that each country may choose it's own human rights protection in the context of "national circumstances".


3. China is diluting the concept of universal values and promoting its world view on human rights.


4. With no one to stand up to China in te absence of US leadership at the UN, Beijing is actively promoting its foreign policies especially the BRI through the global body.

It says that BRI serves the purposes and principles of the Charter of the UN.

There is a speculation of a coordinated Sino Russian front at the UN due to the lack of unity among the western members of the Security Council.


 

Source: THE HINDU

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GS-III :
UN report on Lead content in paints


Context:

 World Lead Prevention Week started on October 20, 2019.

On the sidelines, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has released a report on lead concentration in items like paints.
 

Permissible limit:

90 ppm is the concentration limit recommended by the Model Law and Guidance for Regulating Lead Paint published by the UNEP in 2018.

It is the lowest and most protective regulatory limit for lead paints that has been set in India and some other countries. 

Key points:

Only 13 countries have laws which prescribe that lead concentration should not be more than 90 particles per million (ppm).

These 13 countries are part of 73 countries out of the UN’s 193 members, which, as of September 30, 2019, had confirmed that they had legally binding controls on lead in paint, according to the UNEP report.

The largest economic burden of lead exposure was borne by low- and middle-income countries.


Lead and it’s concentration:

Lead is added to paints for various reasons, including enhancing the colour, reducing corrosion and decreasing the drying time.

However, lead can reach soil, dust and groundwater through weathering or peeling of the patin.


Health impacts:

Lead exposure accounted for 1.06 million deaths from long-term effects and 24.4 million disability adjusted life years known as DALYs in 2007.

Lead can cause permanent damage to the brain and nervous system, resulting in decreased IQ and increased behavioural problems.

It can also cause anaemia, increase the risk of kidney damage and hypertension, and impair reproductive function.

Young children and pregnant women (whose developing foetus can be exposed) are especially vulnerable to the adverse effects of lead. Even relatively low levels of exposure can cause serious and irreversible neurological damage. 

  Solutions:

The cost of eliminating the use of lead compounds in decorative paint is much lower than removing these paints from surfaces in homes.

By contrast, the economic cost is low for eliminating the use of lead compounds in new decorative paints. In fact, many manufacturers have already successfully reformulated their paint products to avoid the intentional addition of lead.

According to the paint industry, the reformulation of residential and decorative paints to eliminate lead additives is feasible, and the technical and cost impacts are manageable.

 Way Forward:


Hence, there is a need to establish laws and informing people about the hazardous effects of lead in paints remained key measures to curb its growing menace. 



 

Source: THE HINDU

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GS-III : Economic Issues Terminology
A FIX FOR GROWTH GAIN FROM FISCAL PAIN

Context:

With euphoria over the corporate tax cut fading , the government needs to address fundamental to the economy.

Advantaged of corporate tax rate cuts:

# Increase in FDI in Indian economy
# Solution to twin balance sheet problem
# Attractive Indian market on the background of US- China trade wars
# Stimulus to Make in India
# Stock market going bullish
# Incrase in private investment and increase in employment opportunities

Demerits of corporate tax rate cuts :

1. Loss of around 1.5 lack crores to Government.
2. Decrease in the welfare activities of government.
3. Less funding to MGNREGA.
4. Corporate sector in India is not the major driver for economic growth .

How to revive from economic depression?

The major drivers of growth in India are Agriculture and its allied sectors and MSME sector. Agriculture supports livelihoods of around 50% population and also is important for food security.
So some of the steps can be :

1. Constitute 'fund of funds' to fund venture capital to MSMEs and also constitute credit guarantee fund.
2. Promote Agriculture entrepreneurship through Agri Udaan .
3. Rashtriya Gokul Mission and Animal Husbandry to promote Dry land area agriculture.
4. Infrastructure development like schools, health centers, bridges, roads ,etc.
5. Funding to MGNREGA to boost the rural demand.
6. Skill Development through PMKVY, NSDC, NSQF, etc.


If these can be implemented speedily and efficiently, then we could pull the sagging economy out of quagmire , especially in the near term and hopefully incentivize and facilitate the much anticipated spurt in corporate investment which apparently the government was aiming at while announcing the tax bonanza.


 

Source: THE HINDU

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