UPSC Courses

DNA banner


Monthly DNA

24 Mar, 2021

69 Min Read

Bangkok General Guidance for Judges in Applying a Gender Perspective

GS-II : Governance Judiciary

Bangkok General Guidance for Judges in Applying a Gender Perspective


  • The Bangkok General Guidance for Judges in Applying a Gender Perspective was discussed and adopted by judges from Philippines in 24 to 25 June 2016, hosted by the ICJ and UN Women.
  • The idea to initiate the development of the Bangkok General Guidance emerged from the ASEAN Regional Dialogue on Judging with a Gender Perspective, which was held in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2015.

General Guidance

  • The Bangkok General Guidance can make a powerful contribution toward achieving gender equality under the law in Southeast Asia.
  • It is crucial that judges now work to implement this General Guidance in their home countries.
  • Women have a right to equal treatment and equal protection and non-discrimination under the law.
  • It is our responsibility as judges to ensure that women receive equal treatment in law and in practice.
  • The Bangkok General Guidance will make judges aware of means to consider the evidence without resorting to gender stereotypes and decide cases based on the principle of equality recognized under international human rights standards, including the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW).

Source: TH

Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India (BGREI)

GS-II : Government policies and interventions Government Schemes & Programmes

Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India (BGREI)

  • Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India (BGREI), a sub-scheme of Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), launched in 2010-11, is being implemented in seven eastern states namely Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Eastern Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
  • Under the programme, assistance is being provided to the farmers for organizing cluster demonstrations on rice and wheat, seed production and distribution, nutrient management and soil ameliorants, integrated pest management, cropping system-based training, asset-building such as farm machinery & implements, irrigation devices, site-specific activities and post-harvest & marketing support, etc.
  • Under the programme, the Government of India allocates funds to the State and further allocation to the district is made by the respective State Government.
  • BGREI programme is intended to address the constraints limiting the productivity of “rice-based cropping systems” in eastern India. Under these systems, the other crops like wheat, coarse-cum-Nutri cereals, pulses & oilseeds are already covered.

Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana

  • The Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana was introduced with an aim to provide support to the agricultural sector in achieving 4% annual agriculture growth.
  • RKVY scheme was launched in the year 2007 and was later rebranded as Remunerative Approaches for Agriculture and Allied sector Rejuvenation (RAFTAAR) to be implemented for three years till 2019-20 with a budget allocation of Rs 15,722 crore.
  • In a meeting held on 29th May 2007, the National Development Council (NDC), resolved the idea of launching a Central Assistance Scheme (RKVY) concerned of the slow growth in the Agriculture and allied sectors.
  • The NDC also aimed at the reorientation of the agricultural development strategies in order to meet the needs of farmers.
  • The scheme provided considerable flexibility and autonomy to States in planning and executing programmes for incentivising investment in agriculture and allied sectors.
  • The scheme facilitated decentralized planning in the agricultural sector through the initiation of the State Agriculture Plan (SAP) and District Agriculture Plans (DAPs).
  • The scheme was based on the agro-climatic conditions ensuring the availability of appropriate technology and natural resources thus providing accommodation for the local needs.

Objectives of RKVY RAFTAAR

  • Risk mitigation, strengthening the efforts of the farmers along with promoting agri-business entrepreneurship through the creation of agri-infrastructure.
  • Providing all the states with autonomy and flexibility in making plans as per their local needs.
  • Helping farmers in increasing their income by encouraging productivity and promoting value chain addition linked production models.
  • To reduce the risk of farmers by focusing on increasing the income generation through mushroom cultivation, integrated farming, floriculture, etc.
  • Empowering the youth through various skill development, innovation, and agri-business models.


  • A component, the Innovation and Agri-entrepreneurship Development programme has been launched under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana in order to promote innovation and agri-entrepreneurship by providing financial support and nurturing the incubation ecosystem.
  • These start-ups are in various categories such as agro-processing, artificial intelligence, digital agriculture, farm mechanisation, waste to wealth, dairy, fisheries etc.
  • The following are the components of this scheme:
  1. Agripreneurship Orientation – 2 months duration with a monthly stipend of Rs. 10,000/- per month. Mentorship is provided on financial, technical, IP issues etc.
  2. Seed Stage Funding of R-ABI Incubatees – Funding up to Rs. 25 lakhs (85% grant & 15% contribution from the incubator).
  3. Idea/Pre-Seed Stage Funding of Agripreneurs – Funding up to Rs. 5 lakhs (90% grant and 10% contribution from the incubatee).

Source: PIB

Project Mausam: Maritime Routes and Cultural Landscapes

GS-II : Government policies and interventions Government Schemes & Programmes

Project Mausam: Maritime Routes and Cultural Landscapes

  • Mausam’ is the initiative of the Ministry of Culture to be implemented by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) as the nodal agency with research support from the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA) and National Museum.
  • This project aims to explore the multi-faceted Indian Ocean ‘world’ – collating archaeological and historical research in order to document the diversity of cultural, commercial and religious interactions in the Indian Ocean.
  • The main objective of the project is to inscribe places and sites identified under Project Mausam as a trans-national nominations for inscription on UNESCO’s World Heritage List.
  • Mausam has now been extended up to 31st March 2023.
  • The unique idea of this project to showcase a Transnational Mixed Route (including Natural and Cultural Heritage) on the World Heritage List has been well appreciated during the Project Launch by India at the 38th World Heritage Session at Doha, Qatar on 20th June 2014.
  • The Director General of UNESCO appreciated India’s initiative in launching this unique project and ambassadors of several countries including China, UAE, Qatar, Iran, Myanmar, and Vietnam expressed great interest in this multifaceted cultural project.

About the Project

  • Focusing on monsoon patterns, cultural routes and maritime landscapes, Project ‘Mausam’ is examining key processes and phenomena that link different parts of the Indian Ocean littoral as well as those that connect the coastal centres to their hinterlands.
  • Broadly, Project ‘Mausam’ aims to understand how the knowledge and manipulation of the monsoon winds has shaped interactions across the Indian Ocean and led to the spread of shared knowledge systems, traditions, technologies and ideas along maritime routes.
  • These exchanges were facilitated by different coastal centres and their surrounding environs in their respective chronological and spatial contexts, and simultaneously had an effect on them.
  • The endeavour of Project ‘Mausam’is to position itself at two levels:
    1. At the macro level, it aims to re-connect and re-establish communications between countries of the Indian Ocean world, which would lead to an enhanced understanding of cultural values and concerns;
    2. At the micro level, the focus is on understanding national cultures in their regional maritime milieu.

Source: PIB

One District One Product (ODOP) approach under PM FME Scheme

GS-III : Economic Issues Food processing industry

One District One Product (ODOP) approach under PM FME Scheme

  • The Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI) under the Centrally Sponsored Pradhan Mantri Formalisation of Micro Food Processing Enterprises Scheme (PM FME Scheme), provides financial, technical and business support for upgradation of existing micro food processing enterprises.
  • The scheme adopts One District One Product (ODOP) approach to reap the benefits of scale in terms of procurement of inputs, availing common services and marketing of products.
  • The objectives of the scheme are to build capacity of two lakh micro enterprises through increased access to credit, integration with organized supply chain by strengthening branding and marketing, increased access to common services, strengthening of institutions, research & training in the food processing sector.
  • ODOP for the scheme has a framework for value chain development and alignment of support infrastructure.
  • This scheme is being implemented for a period of five years from 2020-21 to 2024-25 with an outlay of Rs. 10,000 crores.
  • ODOP for 707 districts of 35 State/UTs have been approved by the MOFPI.
  • The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare through One District One Focus Produce (ODOFP) for 728 districts of 36 States/UTs converge resources towards ODOP from ongoing centrally sponsored schemes such as Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH), National Food Security Mission (NFSM), Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY), schemes of Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying.
  • State Level Up-gradation Plan (SLUP) by all States/UTs is based on Agriculture production of ODOPs, industrial scenario, market availability etc. It enables the States to identify their product clusters, market linkages, stakeholders, the requirement of skill development for beneficiaries, infrastructure support, financial linkages etc.
  • The scheme envisages strengthening backwards and forward linkages, provision of common facilities, incubation centres, training, research and development (R&D), marketing and branding.
  • The enhanced capacity of processing and value addition in agriculture and allied sector products will lead to a better price realization for the farmers.
  • The identified products have the potential for both domestic demand and export and will be promoted in a cluster approach through the converged resources of the Government of India.

Benefits of District-Specific products

Identifying district-specific products would lead to the following benefits to the micro food processing entrepreneurs:

  • Increased access to credit by existing Micro Food Processing entrepreneurs, FPOs, Self Help Groups and Co-operatives.
  • Integration with organized supply chain by strengthening branding & marketing;
  • Support for the transition of existing 2,00,000 enterprises into the formal framework;
  • Increased access to common services like common processing facility, laboratories, storage, packaging, marketing and incubation services;
  • Strengthening of institutions, research and training in the food processing sector; and
  • Empowers SC, ST and Women Entrepreneurs as the scheme lays special focus on SC, ST and women entrepreneurs.
  • Increased access for the enterprises, to professional and technical support.

Salient Features

  1. Support to Individual Micro Enterprises: Credit-linked capital subsidy @35% of the eligible project cost, maximum ceiling Rs.10 lakh per unit;
  2. Support to FPOs/ SHGs/ Producer Cooperatives: Credit linked Grant @35% to support clusters and groups such as FPOs/ SHGs/ Producer Cooperatives along their entire value chain for sorting, grading, storage, common processing, packaging, marketing, testing etc.
  3. Support to SHGs for seed capital: Seed capital @ Rs. 40,000/- per member of SHG engaged in food processing for working capital and purchase of small tools.
  4. Support for Common Infrastructure: Credit linked grant @ 35% to support FPOs, SHGs, Cooperatives, any Government agency or private enterprises for Common infrastructure. The common infrastructure will also be available for other units and public to utilize on hiring basis for substantial part of the capacity.
  5. Branding and Marketing Support: Grant upto 50% for Branding and Marketing to groups of FPOs/ SHGs/ Cooperatives or an SPV of micro food processing enterprises.
  6. Capacity Building: The scheme envisages training for Entrepreneurship Development Skilling (EDP+): a program modified to meet the requirement of the food processing industry and product-specific skilling.

Source: PIB

Process of Setting up Cold Storage

GS-III : Economic Issues Food processing industry

Process of Setting up Cold Storage

  • The government does not set up cold storage of its own. However, Government is implementing various schemes under which financial assistance is provided for setting up cold storage for storage of agricultural produce including perishable horticulture produce throughout the country.

1) Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH)

  • Department of Agriculture Cooperation and Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW) is implementing Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) under which financial assistance is provided for various horticulture activities including setting up of cold storages.
  • The component is demand/entrepreneur driven for which Government assistance in the form of credit linked back ended subsidy is available at the rate of 35% of the project cost in general areas and at the rate of 50% of the project cost in hilly and scheduled areas.
  • Under MIDH, cold storages are sanctioned by State and Central level Committees constituted for this purpose under operational guidelines of MIDH.
  • The cold storages upto a capacity of 5000 MT are eligible for assistance under MIDH.
  • The powers for sanction of projects up to project cost of Rs.500 lakh including setting up of cold storage have been delegated to State Level Executive Committee (SLEC).
  • Projects with a project cost of more than Rs. 500 lakh and upto a capacity of 5000 MT are approved by the Empowered Monitoring Committee (EMC) of DAC&FW on recommendation of SLEC.
  • For seeking assistance for setting up of cold storage under MIDH, promoter is required to submit the proposal to the concerned State Horticulture Mission.

2) Capital Investment Subsidy for Construction /Expansion /Modernization of Cold Storages and Storages for Horticulture Products

  • Besides, National Horticulture Board (NHB) is implementing a scheme namely “Capital Investment Subsidy for Construction/Expansion/Modernization of Cold Storages and Storages for Horticulture Products”.
  1. Under the scheme, credit linked back-ended subsidy at the rate of 35% of the capital cost of the project in general areas and 50% in case of North East, Hilly States & Scheduled areas for construction/expansion/modernization of cold storage and CA storage of capacity above 5000 MT and up to 10000 MT is available.
  2. In case of North East region, the units with capacity above 1000 MT are also eligible for assistance.
  3. The Scheme is demand/ entrepreneur-driven.

3) Scheme for Integrated Cold Chain, Value Addition and Preservation Infrastructure

  • Further, Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MOFPI) is implementing a Scheme for Integrated Cold Chain, Value Addition and Preservation Infrastructure as one of the component of Pradhan Mantri Kisan Sampada Yojana with the objective of reducing post-harvest losses of horticulture and non-horticulture produce and providing remunerative price to farmers for their produce.
  • Under the scheme, Ministry provides financial assistance in the form of grant-in-aid at the rate of 35% for general areas and 50% for North East States, Himalayan States, ITDP areas and Islands for storage and transport infrastructure and at the rate of 50% and 75% respectively for value addition and processing infrastructure subject to a maximum grant-in-aid of Rs. 10 crore per project for setting up integrated cold chain projects including irradiation facility without any break from the farm gate to the consumer.
  • The integrated cold chain and preservation infrastructure can be set up by individuals, groups of entrepreneurs, cooperative societies, Self Help Groups (SHGs), Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs), NGOs, Central/State PSUs, etc.
  • Standalone cold storages are not covered under the Scheme.
  • The organization desiring to set up a cold chain project has to apply against EOI issued from time to time.

Source: PIB

Delivery of Seeds in India

GS-III : Economic Issues Agriculture reforms

Delivery of Seeds in India

  • The States are primarily responsible to ensure the production, availability and distribution/ supply of quality seeds to the farmers through its Department of Agriculture, state farms, State Seeds Corporation, State Agricultural Universities (SAUs), Cooperatives and Private Seed Companies etc.
  • The Government of India supplements the efforts of the State Governments by providing breeder seeds for seed chain and coordinating seeds requirement and availability through the mechanism of Zonal Seeds Review Meetings prior to each sowing season and weekly video conferences.
  • As reported by States, 483.66 lakh qtls. of certified / quality seed is available against the requirement 443.16 lakh qtls. during current year 2020-21.

The steps taken/being taken for making available quality seeds to the farmers are as under:

  • The Government of India is providing financial assistance for production and distribution of seeds of High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of different crops to the States and implementing agencies through various ongoing crop development programmes/ schemes viz. National Food Security Mission (NFSM), Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern India (BGREI), Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), Sub-Mission on Seeds & Planting Material (SMSP) etc.
  • The states are encouraged by the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers’ Welfare (DAC&FW) to develop a Seed Rolling Plan in advance as per the estimated requirement of seeds in their state, so that the seeds of required variety could be made available at right time to the farmers. DAC&FW also ensures fixation of uniform breeder seeds price in consultation with Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) for minimization of foundation and certified seed costs.
  • Indian Institute of Seed Science, ICAR is also coordinating the production of quality seed in the country through the network of 63 cooperating centres under National Seed Project of ICAR. Single window system for effective planning and implementation of seed production programme and computerized seed sale outlets has been established to guarantee ease in accessibility of quality seeds to farmers at all centres.

In some states quality seed is being made available at every village within the reach of farmers and farmer is facilitated to purchase seed of choice from the desired outlets. Similarly, procurements centres at villages have been established to facilitate procurement by the marketing department. Moreover, some states have well established mandis and generally the seed dealers and other agri-input dealers also have shops in these mandis avoiding involvement of middlemen

Source: PIB

National Biopharma Mission

GS-III : S&T Bio technology

National Biopharma Mission

  • Towards strengthening the emerging biotechnology enterprise in India, the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), has initiated the Cabinet-approved National Biopharma Mission entitled: “Industry-Academia Collaborative Mission for Accelerating Discovery Research to Early Development for Biopharmaceuticals – Innovate in India Empowering biotech entrepreneurs & accelerating inclusive innovation”.

The approved objectives of the Mission are enlisted below :

  1. Development of products from leads that are at advanced stages in the product development lifecycle and relevant to public health.
  2. Strengthening and establishing shared infrastructure facilities for both product discovery validation and manufacturing
  3. Developing human capital by providing specific training to address the critical skills gaps in researchers, and nascent biotech companies across the product development value chain, including in business plan development and market penetration.
  4. Creating and enhancing technology transfer and intellectual property management capacities and capabilities in public and private sector.

In alignment with the approved objectives the specific targets for the Mission, over a period of five years, include:

  • Development of 5 biopharma products – Vaccines, biotherapeutics, medical devices and diagnostics;
  • establishment of shared infrastructure and facilities such as GLP Validation and Reference Lab, and CMC facilities;
  • Med-Tech validation facility;
  • Consortia for translational and interdisciplinary research, process development, development of cell lines and expression systems;
  • Clinical trial networks;
  • Setting up and establishing of technology transfer offices in public and private sectors, and imparting training for technical and non-technical skill development.

Other Features

  • The Mission is to support small and medium enterprises so that they can overcome the risks involved in the early stages of product development.
  • To promote entrepreneurship, the Mission is to support enhanced industry-academia inter- linkages and provide mentoring and training for academia, innovators and entrepreneurs to translate knowledge into products/technologies.
  • Domestic manufacturing is being promoted through the supported shared national facilities such as GLP Analytical Facilities; CMC facilities for Clinical Trial Lot Manufacturing; Cell Line Repositories; Setting up of Clinical Trial Networks and supporting translational research consortia.

To promote innovation for inclusiveness, the Mission is to strengthen the ecosystem for affordable product development through the following:

  • Development of vaccine candidates for Cholera, Influenza, Dengue, Chikungunya and Pneumococcal disease, Rabies and COVID-19;
  • Biosimilar products for Diabetes, Psoriasis, Cancer;
  • Diagnostic kits; Med Tech Devices for Imaging, Pumps for dialysis and MRI scanners;
  • Supporting shared facilities for Biopharmaceutical development (10), Med Tech device development (9) and Vaccine Development (2);
  • Establishment of hospital-based and field site-based Clinical Trial Networks for clinical trials of vaccines and bio-therapeutics;
  • Supporting Translational Research Consortia (TRC) for infectious diseases to accelerate vaccine development efforts;
  • Support for 7 Technology Transfer Offices for promoting entrepreneurship;
  • Imparting training to address the critical skill gaps among the nascent biotech companies in areas such as Product development, intellectual property registration, technology transfer and regulatory standards

Source: PIB

SAAMAR Campaign in Jharkhand

GS-II : Government policies and interventions Government policies and interventions

SAAMAR Campaign in Jharkhand

The Jharkhand government has launched the SAAMAR campaign to tackle malnutrition in the state.

About SAAMAR Campaign:

  • SAAMAR is an acronym for Strategic Action for Alleviation of Malnutrition and Anaemia Reduction.
  • The SAAMAR campaign aims to identify anaemic women and malnourished children.
  • It brings together various departments to effectively deal with the major malnutrition problem in the state.

Features of the campaign:

  • SAMAR campaign has been launched with a 1000 days target. Under this annual surveys will be conducted to track the progress.
  • Every Anganwadi Centres will be engaged to identify malnourished children. Subsequently, they will be treated at the Malnutrition Treatment Centres.
  • Anaemic women will also be identified and will be referred to health centres in serious cases.

Why was this campaign launched?

According to NFHS-4 data, Jharkhand has some worrying level of malnutrition. The NFHS-4 data reveals the following trends:

  • Every 2nd child in the state is stunted and underweight
  • Every 3rd child is affected by stunting
  • Every 10th child is affected by severe wasting
  • Apart from that, around 70% of children are anaemic in the state.

Hence, the intervention was required with a ‘different approach to reduce malnutrition.

Source: TH

World Summit on the Information Society Forum 2021

GS-II : International Relations International Organizations

World Summit on the Information Society Forum 2021

Union Minister of Telecom has represented India at the World Summit on the Information Society Forum 2021.

About World Summit on the Information Society Forum 2021:

  • It is one of the world’s largest annual gatherings of the ‘ICT for the development community.
  • WSI's chief aim is to bridge the global digital divide separating rich countries from poor countries.
  • The WSIS aims to achieve this by increasing internet accessibility in the developing world.
  • The summit is co-organized by International Telecommunication Union(ITU), UNESCO, UNDP and UNCTAD.

About International Telecommunication Union:

  • ITU is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies – ICTs.
  • It was originally established in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union.
  • It is one of the oldest international organizations in operations.
  • It is open to all Member States of the United Nations. There are currently 193 Member States of the ITU. This includes all the UN member states except the Republic of Palau.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland

Source: TH

Namami Gange Program

GS-II : Government policies and interventions Government policies and interventions

Namami Gange Programme

The Government of India has been currently implementing several initiatives under the Namami Gange Programme to clean the polluted rivers of Ganga.

  • The Programme was launched in 2014.
  • It is an Integrated Conservation Mission under the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  • It Aims to achieve effective abatement of pollution, conservation and rejuvenation of the National River Ganga.

Main Pillars of the Programme:

  • Sewerage Treatment Infrastructure,
  • River-Surface Cleaning,
  • Afforestation,
  • Industrial Effluent Monitoring,
  • River-Front Development,
  • Biodiversity
  • Public Awareness among others.
  • National Mission for Clean Ganga is the implementing agency of the Namami Gange Programme at the national level.

National Mission for Clean Ganga:

  • It is a statutory authority.
  • It is established under the National Council for River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Act, 2016.

Projects under the programme:

  • Presently, sewerage infrastructure works for pollution abatement is under execution on 13 tributaries of river Ganga.
  • These include Yamuna, Kosi, Saryu, Ramganga, Kali, Gomti, Kharkari, Burhi Gandak, Banka, Damodar, Rispana-Bindal and Chambal.

Source: TH

New Projects Under Jal Jeevan Mission

GS-II : Government policies and interventions Government policies and interventions

New Projects Under Jal Jeevan Mission

The Ministry of Jal Shakti Ministry has entered a partnership with the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) and the government of Denmark.

The agreement aims to bring tap water connections to 11 water-scarce districts in Uttar Pradesh under the Jal Jeevan mission.

About United Nations Office for Project Services(UNOPS):

  • The office was established in 1973 as part of the United Nations Development Programme(UNDP).
  • It became an independent, self-financing organization in 1995.
  • It is aimed at implementing projects for the United Nations System, international financial institutions and governments.
  • UNOPS is a member of the United Nations Sustainable Development Group(UNSDG).
  • The headquarters of the United Nations Office for Project Services is located in Copenhagen, Denmark.

About United Nations Sustainable Development Group(UNSDG):

  • The United Nations Sustainable Development Group(UNSDG) was established in 1997.
  • It was previously known as the United Nations Development Group (UNDG).
  • It is a consortium of 36 United Nations funds, programs, specialized agencies, departments and offices playing a role in development.
  • The UNSDG was created with the intent to improve the effectiveness of United Nations development activities at the country level.
  • Headquarters: New York, United States

Jal Jeevan Mission:

  • It aims to provide every rural household with functional household tap connections (FHTCs) with adequate quantity and of prescribed quality of water on a regular and long-term basis by 2024.
  • It is being implemented by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation under the Jal Shakti Ministry.

Key Features:

  • The mission implements source sustainability measures as mandatory elements, such as recharge and reuse through grey water management, water conservation, rain water harvesting.
  • The mission is based on a community approach to water and will include extensive Information, Education and communication as a key component of the mission.
  • Water quality testing is one of the priority areas under the mission.
  • It also looks to create a jan andolan for water thereby making it everyone’s priority.

About Jal Jeevan Mission(Urban):

  • Implemented by Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs.
  • The Objective is to provide universal coverage of water supply to all households in all 4,378 statutory towns, through functional taps.
  • The duration of the mission is over 5 years.

Features of the Jal Jeevan Mission (URBAN):

  • It will rejuvenate the water bodies to facilitate sustainable fresh water supply and the creation of green spaces.
  • It will promote a circular economy of water through the development of city water balance plan in each city.
  • The plan will focus on recycling/reuse of treated sewage water and water conservation.
  • 20% of water demand is to be met by reused water.

Awareness Campaign:

  • Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) campaign is proposed. It will spread awareness among the masses about the conservation of water.
  • Pey Jal Survekshan will be conducted in cities.
    • It will ascertain the equitable distribution of water, reuse of wastewater, and mapping of water bodies
  • Technology Submission is for water is proposed to leverage the latest global technologies in the field of water.
  • The mission has mandated that cities having a million-plus population will take up PPP projects.
  • These projects shall constitute a minimum of 10% of their total project fund allocation.


  • For Union Territories, there will be 100% central funding.
  • For North Eastern and Hill States, central funding for projects will be 90%.
  • Central funding will be 50% for cities with less than 1 lakh population, one-third for cities with 1 lakh to 10 lakh population, and 25% for cities with the million plus population.

Source: IE

Indus Water Commission

GS-II : Bilateral Relations India and its neighborhood

Indus Water Commission

India and Pakistan will hold the 116th meeting of the Permanent Indus Commission(PIC) in New Delhi. They will discuss water-sharing issues and address each other’s concerns with the Indus Water Treaty.

About Permanent Indus Commission(PIC):

  • The Permanent Indus Commission is a bilateral commission of officials from India and Pakistan. It is created to implement and manage the goals of the Indus Water Treaty, 1960.
  • The Commission according to the treaty must meet regularly at least once a year.
  • The PIC will hold the meeting alternately in India and Pakistan.

Functions of the Permanent Indus Commission:

  • To establish and promote cooperative arrangements for the Treaty implementation;
  • Furnishing or exchange of information or data provided in the Treaty;
  • Promote cooperation between the Parties in the development of the waters of the Indus system.
  • The last meeting of the PIC was held in Pakistan in 2018. The Commission had to meet in 2020, but it got cancelled in view of the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic.

Key Focus of the 116th Permanent Indus Commission meeting:

  • The PIC will discuss Pakistan’s objections to two Indian projects:
    • Pakal Dul Hydro Electric Project: India is building the project on the river Marusudar, a tributary of the Chenab. The project is located in the Kishtwar district of J&K.
    • Lower Kalnai Hydro Electric Project: India is developing it on the River Chenab.
  • Issues such as flood data exchange mechanisms are also expected to be discussed during the meeting.

About Indus Water Treaty:

  • Firstly, the Indus Water Treaty, 1960 is a water-distribution treaty between India and Pakistan.
  • Secondly, according to the treaty, waters of the eastern rivers — Sutlej, Beas and Ravi had been allocated to India for unrestricted use.
  • Similarly, the western rivers — the Indus, Jhelum and Chenab were allocated to Pakistan.
  • Thirdly, India has been given the right to generate hydroelectricity through a run of the river projects on the western rivers subject to specific criteria for design and operation.
  • And lastly, Pakistan also has the right to raise concerns about the design of Indian hydroelectric projects on western rivers.

Source: TH

Traditional Textiles of Assam in News due to Upcoming Elections

GS-I : Art and Culture Textile

Traditional Textiles of Assam in News due to Upcoming Elections

Decorative jaapi (field hats), hand-woven games, and bell-metal xorais are making frequent appearances in Assam as the election is coming closer.

About Jaapi:

  • Jaapi is a conical hat.
  • It is made of bamboo and covered with dried tokou leaves
    • Tokou is a palm tree found in the rainforests of Upper Assam.
  • Jaapi is most often used in official functions in Assam to felicitate guests.
  • Farmers also use jaapi to protect themselves from the harsh weather, both sun and rain while working in the fields.

About Xorai:

  • Xorai is essentially a tray with a stand at the bottom with or without a cover. Every Assamese household has it.
  • Xorai is primarily used as an offering tray during prayers. They are also used to serve tamale-paan (betel-nut) to guests.
  • The bulk of xorai in Assam are made in the state’s bell metal hub Sarthebari in the Bajali district.

About Gamosa:

  • Gamosa is generally a white rectangular piece of cloth with primarily a red border on three sides and red woven motifs on the fourth.
  • The most common material for making gamosa is cotton yarn. But on special occasions, they are also made from Pat silk.
  • It can be used at home as a towel or in public functions or to felicitate dignitaries or celebrities.

Source: IE

Gandhi Peace Prize 2020 & 2019

GS-I : Art and Culture Awards & Honours

Gandhi Peace Prize 2020 & 2019

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and the former Sultan of Oman, the late Qaboos bin Said Al Said, will be awarded the Gandhi Peace Prize for 2020 and 2019, respectively.

They were selected by the jury, chaired by the Prime Minister, Chief Justice of India, the leader of the single largest Opposition party in the Lok Sabha, Lok Sabha Speaker and founder of Sulabh International.

About the Gandhi Peace Prize:

  • The annual award was instituted by the Government of India in 1995 during the commemoration of the 125th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Usually awarded to those involved in social, economic and political transformation through non-violence.
  • The award carries an amount of Rs. 1 crore, a Citation in a scroll, a plaque as well as an exquisite traditional handicraft/handloom item.
  • The prize can be given to individuals, associations, institutions or organizations.
  • It is open to all persons regardless of nationality, creed, race or sex.

About Sheikh Mujibur Rahman:

  • He was known as Bangabandhu. Also regarded as "Jatir Janak" or "Jatir Pita" (both meaning "Father of the Nation") of Bangladesh.
  • He was born on 17th March 1920 in Tungipara, India (now in Bangladesh) and passed away on 15th August 1975 in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • Year 2020 marked the birth centenary of Bangabandhu.
  • He was a Bengali leader who became the first prime minister of Bangladesh (1972–75) and later became the president of the same in 1975.
  • He began his formal political career in 1949 as a co-founder of the Awami League.
  • He played a crucial role in advocating political autonomy for East Pakistan, the detached eastern part of Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
  • He was chosen for the Gandhi Peace Prize 2020 in recognition of his outstanding contributions toward social, economic and political transformation through non-violent and other Gandhian methods.

Qaboos bin Said Al Said:

  • He has been the Arab world's longest-serving ruler. He ruled Oman for almost half a century.
  • In 1970, with the help of the British, Qaboos overthrew his father in a bloodless coup, emerging as the Sultan at age 29.
  • He was a visionary leader whose twin policy of moderation and mediation in addressing international issues won him praise and respect across the globe.
  • He was also the architect of the special ties between India and Oman as he studied in India and always maintained a special relationship.
  • The Gandhi Peace Prize 2019 recognises his leadership in strengthening the ties between India and Oman and his efforts to promote peace in the Gulf region.

Source: TH

Other Related News

23 March,2021
Government of NCT of Delhi (Amendment) Bill, 2021

Government of NCT of Delhi (Amendment) Bill, 2021 Introduction The Government of NCT of Delhi (Amendment) Bill, 2021 will reduce the elected government to a mere vestigial organ LG’s exception to Parliamentary form of govt. in India The government in India is run in the nam

Getting it right on the LAC disengagement

Getting it right on the LAC disengagement Introduction There are many speculations about the LAC disengagement plan like- the creation of a “buffer zone on Indian territory”, “surrendering of Indian territory” and others have questioned the withdrawal of India’

Myanmar coup-The way forward

Myanmar coup-The way forward Introduction The Myanmar junta should heed the people and respect the election results Background of the coup Ever since the military captured power in Myanmar seven weeks ago, the country has steadily descended into political and economic chaos. W

Aluminium Air Batteries

Aluminium Air Batteries Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. has entered into a joint venture with Israel-based battery technology start-up Phinergy to develop aluminium-air technology-based battery systems. These batteries utilise oxygen in the air which reacts with an aluminium hydroxide solution

Diatom Test for Detecting Death via Drowning

Diatom Test for Detecting Death via Drowning Maharashtra Anti-Terrorism Squad (ATS) relied on a diatom test for leads in the alleged murder case of Mansukh Hiran. About Diatom Test It helps in diagnosing the death caused by drowning. It tests diatoms in the body being tested. Diatoms

Turkey Withdraws from Istanbul Convention

Turkey Withdraws from Istanbul Convention Turkey withdraws from the Istanbul Convention - to combat violence against women. About Istanbul Convention: Istanbul Convention is also called the Council of Europe Convention. It aims towards preventing and combating violence against women a

India’s approach towards the Rohingya refugees

India’s approach towards the Rohingya refugees Introduction India would be in breach of international law in turning its back on the people of Myanmar The world has been watching Myanmar descend into a brutal military dictatorship again. The scenes from the past few weeks have be

West Asia-Labour reforms

West Asia-Labour reforms Introduction Not one of the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states can cater to their labour market needs domestically. Their dependence on migration is only set to increase with fertility rates falling. Despite there being unemployment, the citizens of the

Pabbi-Antiterror-2021 – SCO’s Joint Anti-Terrorism Exercise

Pabbi-Antiterror-2021 – SCO’s Joint Anti-Terrorism Exercise India, Pakistan, China and other members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) will hold a joint anti-terrorism exercise called “Pabbi-Antiterror-2021”. About Exercise Pabbi-Antiterror-2021: It w

United Nation's World Happiness Report 2021

United Nation's World Happiness Report 2021 World Happiness Report 2021 has been released. It evaluates levels of happiness by accounting factors such as GDP, social support, personal freedom, and levels of corruption in each nation.  About World Happiness Report: It is an

22 March,2021
India’s investment market

India’s investment market FDI inflows Google, Facebook, Walmart, Samsung, Foxconn, and Silver Lake have been just a handful of the firms that made big-ticket bets on India in 2020. As a result, even as India experienced one of the world’s sharpest economic contractions, it al

Unpaid work and Economy

Unpaid work and Economy Unpaid work and its invisible role in national economy Women everywhere carry a disproportionately higher burden of unpaid work, namely, unpaid domestic services as well as unpaid care of children, the old and the disabled for their respective households. Though t

Rising poverty post COVID-19

Rising poverty post COVID-19 Poverty levels in India and China A new study by the Pew Research Center estimates that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a disproportionately deleterious impact on living standards in India and China in 2020, with the sharp economic contraction in the former pushin

Vehicle scrappage policy

Vehicle scrappage policy Scrappage policy can work if incentives are confined to fuel-efficient vehicle replacements Road map for scrappage policy The much-awaited vehicle scrappage policy announced by the Transport Ministry, coming after the move for a green tax on ageing and polluting

Allotting Election Symbol by SC

Allotting Election Symbol by SC The Supreme Court dismissed the special petition challenging the Kerala HC judgments that upheld the Election Commission of India's order allotting the 'Two Leaves' symbol to the Kerala Congress (M). The Election Commission (EC) has plenary powers

Index Monitoring Cell Report

Report by Index Monitoring Cell The Index Monitoring Cell (IMC) in its report recommended, Decriminalising of defamation Consent of the Press Council of India is a prerequisite before filing an FIR against the media or a publication. In the World Press Freedom Index, 2020, India had bee

Drug-resistant superbug “Candida Auris” found in Andamans

Drug-resistant superbug “Candida Auris” found in Andamans Candida Auris has been identified for the first time in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. About Candida Auris: Candida Auris or C.auris is a multidrug-resistant fungus. Origin of Candida Auris: Candida A

Water Resources

Water Resources About 71% of our earth is covered by water and hence our earth is called a watery planet. 97% of the earth's water is found in the oceans (Unused due to saltiness-for drinking, growing crops, and most industrial uses except for cooling). 326M cu. miles of water there


Major Crops Recent developments in Crops- Economic Survey Food Grains Among total imports of food grains, the % share of different crops shows that- cereals are highest followed by pulses>cashewnuts > edible oils. Food Grains Constitute 50.7% of agriculture production.


Search By Date

Post Feed
Newsletter Subscription
SMS Alerts