UPSC Courses

DNA banner


  • 26 November, 2023

  • 5 Min Read

Carbon-Dioxide Removal

As nations gather for the COP 28 in Dubai, the question of carbon capture’s future role in a climate-friendly world will be in focus.

What is Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR)?

  • Carbon removal- Using technologies, practices, and approaches to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from our atmosphere through deliberate and intentional human actions.
  • It captures CO2 from the atmosphere and locks it away for decades or centuries in plants, soils, oceans, rocks, saline aquifers, depleted oil wells, or long- lived products like cement.

  • Process- CDR can be done through traditional or technological processes or both.





  • Afforestation
  • Reforestation
  • Agricultural practices that sequester carbon in soils (carbon farming)

Technological process

  • Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS)
  • Direct Air Carbon Capture and Storage (DACCS)
  • Enhanced rock weathering
  • Forms of CDR- The most common form of carbon capture technology involves capturing the gas from a point source like an industrial smokestack.
  • Carbon storage- It includes
    • Carbon capture and storage (CCS) - The carbon can be moved directly to permanent underground storage.
    • Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) – Carbon can be used in another industrial purpose first.

As of 2023, CDR is estimated to remove around 2 gigatons of CO2 per year, which is equivalent to 4% of the greenhouse gases emitted per year by human activities.

What are the different CDR methods?

CDR method



Afforestation/ Reforestation

  • Converts abandoned or degraded agricultural lands into forests.
  • Additional trees can sequester more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
  • Increases the competition for land.
  • May limit the options for food production and biodiversity conservation.


  • A substance produced by burning organic waste from agricultural lands and forests in a controlled process called pyrolysis.
  • Improve soil quality, which in turn improves soil fertility, productivity and crop yield.
  • Health and environmental impacts of particulate matter produced during pyrolysis.
  • Sourcing sustainable biomass at a scale.


  • Combines energy production, biological carbon removal and geological storage.
  • Uses biomass in combustion to generate energy, then captures the emitted carbon for geological injection.
  • Can create competition for land use with food production, placing pressure on food security.
  • Can increase the use of fertilisers.


  • Extracts CO2 directly from the atmosphere, and is permanently stored in geological formation or used for other application.
  • Accelerates fossil fuel extraction activities, potential CO? leakage from storage sites

Enhanced rock weathering

  • Involves pulverising silicate rocks to bypass the conventionally slow weathering action.
  • Energy intensive process and generates emissions.

Ocean alkalinity enhancement

  • A chemical removal method that involves adding alkaline substances to seawater to accelerate the natural sink.
  • Potential for increased greenhouse gas emissions and can release by-products like trace metals.


Competition Commission of India (CCI)

Competition Commission of India has selected Ansuman Pattnaik as the new head of its investigation’s unit recently. The Competition Commission of India (CCI) is a statutory body within the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. It was established in 2003, but became fully functional in 2009. The CCI aims to establish a

Connected Lending (CL)

RBI’s move to consolidate the scattered laws on connected lending is welcome. CL refers to persons who are in the position to control the decision of the lender. CL is the extension of credit to individuals or firms connected through ownership or the ability to exert control, whether direct or indirect. CL refers to cases where the

Cosmic Distances

No human probe has travelled much beyond the Solar System, yet we are able to measure distances across billions of light-years. The space beyond Earth is so incredibly vast that units of measure, which are convenient in everyday lives, can become gigantic. Distances between the planets, and especially between the stars, become so big when e

Devil Comet

Mount Everest-sized Devil comet hurtling in Earth’s direction could explode today. Pons-Brooks Comet - Comet 13P/Pons-Brooks, also called the Devil Comet, is about the size of Mount Everest and it is hurtling towards Earth. After an outburst in July, scientists believe that the comet could explode once again today. Ice volcanoe

Kakad Bhairav or Bhilat Baba BHILS

A stone deity worshipped by the Bhils in Madhya Pradesh’s Bagh was recently proved to be a fossilized dinosaur egg. Just like their ancestors worshipped ancient stones as deities, generations of Bhils had worshipped this sunbaked, reddish-brown Kakad Bhairav or Bhilat Baba. Sacrifices of chickens and sheep marked their whispered pleas


01 Feb,2024


Search By Date

Post Feed

Newsletter Subscription
SMS Alerts

Important Links