Data Security Council of India
Objectives of DSCI:
Dark Net Vs Deepweb
Militarising Andaman and Nicobar Islands
GS-PAPER-2 IR (Mains)
The Galwan valley face-off with China has rendered many Indian security experts mooted the idea of balancing China in the maritime domain. In this context, strengthening military presence at the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI) remains very critical for India.
The idea of militarizing the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is not new. Since the 1980s, Indian defense experts have advocated building strong strategic infrastructure at the ANI.
However, the strategic development of the ANI is not a straightforward choice for India’s defence and foreign policy establishments. Therefore, India must conduct a cost-benefit analysis before going for militarization of ANI.
Significance of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Opportunities in Militarising ANI
Challenges in Militarising ANI
Militarising ANI is not a bad idea, but India must also take into account the downsides of such a move and the final decision should be based on a dispassionate weighing of costs and benefits.
Locals mark 6 places for settling Bru refugees
GS-PAPER-3 Internal Security - Terrorism
The ambitious National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) project wants to link social media accounts to the huge database of records related to immigration entry and exit, banking and telephone details among others.
Who can access the data?
The database would be accessible to authorised persons from 11 agencies on a case-to-case basis, and only for professional investigations into suspected cases of terrorism.
Why do we need NATGRID?
Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018
Paper-3- Economics (Mains)
Recently, assets worth Rs. 329.66 crore of the Punjab National Bank (PNB) fraud mastermind Nirav Modi have been confiscated under Section 12(2) and (8) of the Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018.
Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018: It seeks to confiscate properties of economic offenders who have left the country to avoid facing criminal prosecution or refuse to return to the country to face prosecution.
Fugitive economic offender: A person against whom an arrest warrant has been issued for committing an offence listed in the Act and the value of the offence is at least Rs. 100 crore.
Some of the offences listed in the act are:
Declaration of a Fugitive Economic Offender:
Bar on Filing or Defending Civil Claims:
The authorities under the PMLA, 2002 will exercise powers given to them under the Fugitive Economic Offenders Act. These powers will be similar to those of a civil court, including the search of persons in possession of records or proceeds of crime, the search of premises on the belief that a person is an FEO and seizure of documents.
Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA)
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967, extends to the whole of India. Any person, who commits an offence beyond India, which is punishable under this Act, shall be dealt with according to the provisions of this Act in the same manner as if such act had been committed in India.
In August 2019, the Central government had amended the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 to include the provision of designating an individual as a terrorist. Prior to this amendment, only organizations could be designated as terrorist organizations.
Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) recently designated nine individuals associated with Khalistani extremist organisations as terrorists under the provisions of the UAPA.
Naga Peace Talks
Part of: GS-III- Internal security NE-NAGALIM (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
Four years after the government inked the Naga peace accord in 2015, the Centre has now said that the process had almost concluded, despite the fact that the talks had hit a roadblock in its final stages.
Why is it being delayed?
It is mainly because of unrealistic demands. NSCN I-M has issued statements in the past claiming that it wanted a separate Constitution, flag and integration of all contiguous Naga-inhabited areas under Nagalim (Greater Nagaland).
Government of India’s stand:
A mutually agreed draft comprehensive settlement, including all the substantive issues and competencies, is ready for inking the final agreement. Respecting the Naga people’s wishes, the Government of India is determined to conclude the peace process without delay.
How old is the Naga political issue?
What are the Naga peace talks?
Rise of Naga nationalism
How has the Naga assertion played out historically?
And how have the peace talks played out in recent years?
Before the ongoing talks, which followed a framework agreement in 2015, there were two other agreements between Naga groups and the Centre.
What was in the framework agreement?
Where does the territorial demand currently stand?
What are the other issues?
Where could the disagreement lead to?
“Facebook is weakening democracy” – Role of Social Media
Part of: GS-III- Internal security (MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
The introduction of the printing press in 15th century Europe revolutionised the social landscape, helping information spread further and faster than ever before. This had a deep link with the spread idea of democracy all over the world. In the present era, social media represents a similar paradigm shift.
Today, social media plays a crucial role in facilitating and distributing content related to all the matters that have a larger influence on public opinion and subsequently on democracy.
Although social media helps in the deepening of democracy, it also tends to weaken the concept of democracy and the emergence of anarchy, because of its unregulated nature and its role in the spread of fake news.
Social Media and Deepening of Democracy
Ill-effects of Social Media On Democracy
Social media awareness is needed which may enable citizens to be in a position to distinguish between truth and falsehood – and to know when democratic processes are being manipulated. Social Media Platforms can provide safeguards in the event that democratic processes are being intentionally disrupted or harmful falsehoods are spreading; it can help people find out what is true.
Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism (EAG) is a regional body comprising nine countries. Members - India, Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Belarus.
It is an associate member of the FATF. Recently India has participated plenary virtual meeting of EAG, under the aegis of the Financial Action Task Force. In the meeting India plans to share more evidence with the key FATF members on the narco-terror cases linked to Pakistan-based syndicates, through which funds are allegedly being supplied to the terrorists operating in Jammu and Kashmir.
FATF is an inter-governmental body to promote effective measures combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system. A country is put on the grey list when it fails to curb terrorism financing and money laundering.
Grey list countries - Pakistan, Myanmar, ,Cambodia, Syria, Mongolia and Yemen in Asia along with few other countries. Putting a country on the blacklist means shutting all doors to international finance for that country. Countries - North Korea and Iran.
Centre rolls out anti-drug plan in 272 vulnerable districts
Enforcement Directorate has registered a money laundering case against the fraudulent transaction of Rs.11, 500 corers in one of the branches of PNB. Enforcement Directorate is a specialized financial investigation agency under the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance.
It enforces Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) and Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA). Its headquarters is situated in New Delhi and headed by the Director of Enforcement. The director is appointed by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet headed by Prime Minister.
Russian authorities have demanded over $20 million for rectifying the damage suffered by nuclear submarine INS Chakra. INS Chakra is a Russia-made, nuclear-propelled, hunter-killer akula class submarine.
INS Chakra is one of the quietest nuclear submarines around, with noise levels next to zero. INS Chakra has been taken on lease from Russia for 10 years and would provide the Navy the opportunity to train personnel and operate such nuclear-powered vessels. The INS Chakra joined the Eastern Naval Command at Visakhapatnam in 2012.
Information Fusion Centre for Indian Ocean Region
The Indian Navy set up the IFC-IOR in December 2018 within the premises of the Information Management and Analysis Centre (IMAC) in Gurugram to track maritime movements in the region. IMAC is located in Gurugram and is the main centre of the Indian Navy for coastal surveillance and monitoring. IMAC is a joint initiative of Indian Navy, Coast Guard and Bharat Electronics Ltd and functions under the National Security Adviser (NSA).
It coordinates with similar centres across the globe which include:
Line of Actual Control: where it is located, and where India and China differ
As tensions continue between India and China along the Line of Actual Control (LAC), a look at what the line means on the ground and the disagreements over it:
What is the Line of Actual Control?
What is the disagreement?
What was India’s response to China’s designation of the LAC?
When did India accept the LAC?
Why did India change its stance on the Line of Actual Control?
Have India and China exchanged their maps of the LAC?
Is the LAC also the claim line for both countries?
But why are these claim lines controversial in Ladakh?
How is the LAC different from the Line of Control with Pakistan?
Param Vishisht Seva Medal (PVSM)
Order of Precedence
Operation Vijay may refer to:
The Ministry of Electronics and IT has highlighted that around 1300 social media URLs were blocked or removed in the last year. These were based on the recommendation of a government committee to deal with “objectionable content”.
The Information Technology (IT) Act 2000 and Indian Penal Code provides for dealing with “objectionable content” posted online. Blocking is a sovereign power that is given to the government by virtue of Section 69A of the IT Act. There are concerns with the parameters on deciding a particular content as 'inappropriate' or 'objectionable'.
Bug Bounty Programme
It has a goal to partner with security researchers and Indian developer community to test the security effectiveness of Aarogya Setu and also to enhance its security and build user’s trust. It is aimed at encouraging the Indian developer community to find security flaws in the app and get rewarded Rs 1 lakh.
Missile Park 'Agneeprastha' to be set up at INS Kalinga
Cyber & Information Security (CIS) Division
Union Ministry of Home Affairs has created Cyber & Information Security (CIS) division. Under this division Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C) and the Cyber Police Force will be set up.
The CIS Division will have four Wings, namely Security Clearance, Cyber Crime Prevention, Cyber Security and Information Security Wings each headed by an Under Secretary level Officer. It is also proposed to appoint the Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) and Deputy CISO.
About Society of Indian Defence Manufacturers (SIDM)
The Society of Indian Defence Manufacturers (SIDM) is a not-for-profit association formed to be the apex body of the Indian defence industry. SIDM plays a proactive role as an advocate, catalyst, and facilitator for the growth and capability building of the defence industry in India.
Catalyse the Indian defence industry to effectively contribute to India's national security and become a trustworthy global partner.
Work closely with the Government towards enabling the growth of the defence industry. Collaborate with experts from the Armed forces.
A malicious software called Cerberus is stealing financial data such as credit card details by luring people with COVID-19 related information, the Central Bureau of Investigation has warned states, Union territories and agencies after receiving Interpol inputs.
The Trojan virus contacts smartphone users via text messages and asks to click on a link saying it will provide COVID-19 updates. When clicked, the link installs a malicious application on their phones, which extracts sensitive financial data.
This malicious software takes advantage of COVID-19 Pandemic to impersonate and send SMS using the lure of COVID-19 related content to download the embedded malicious link, which deploys its malicious app usually spread via phishing campaigns to trick users into installing it on their smartphones.
INLCU L57- Landing Craft Utility (LCU) MK-IV class
INLCU L57 is commissioned into the Indian Navy on 15 May 2020 at Port Blair. INLCU L57 is the seventh Landing Craft Utility (LCU) MK-IV class to be inducted into the Indian Navy. The ship has been indigenously designed and built by M/s Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE), Kolkata. The commissioning of INLCU L57 is yet another manifestation of the country’s indigenous design and ship building capability.
About INCLU L57
The LCU MK-IV ship, is an amphibious vessel with a designated primary role of transporting and deploying Main Battle Tanks, Armoured Vehicles, troops and equipment from ship to shore.
Based at the Andaman and Nicobar Command, these ships can be deployed for multirole activities like beaching operations, search and rescue, disaster relief operations, supply and replenishment and evacuation from distant islands.
ship, displacing 830 tonnes, is capable of transporting various kinds of combat equipment such as Main Battle Tanks Arjun, T72 and other vehicles.
The ship is fitted with state-of-art equipment and advanced systems, like Integrated Bridge System (IBS) and Integrated Platform Management System (IPMS).
It is anticipated that induction of these ships will contribute to the nation’s maritime security needs, in consonance with the Hon’ble Prime Minister’s drive for ‘Make in India’.
A decision by the U.S. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to donate $3.6 million to Indian labs and research agencies to assist in countering COVID-19 pandemic could run into delays, given that the agency has been placed on a “watch list” since Decemver 2019.
Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA) is a consolidating act passed by the Government of India in the year 2010. It seeks to regulate the foreign contributions or donations and hospitality (air travel, hotel accommodation etc) to Indian organizations and individuals and to stop such contributions which might damage the national interest.
Since the Act is internal security legislation, despite being a law related to financial legislation, it falls into the purview of Home Ministry and not the Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
Need for FCRA:
The act aims at keeping a check on foreigners influencing the Indian electoral politics, journalists, public servants etc. for wrong purposes or activities detrimental to the public interest. Those violating the provisions of FCRA can be jailed up to a term of 5 years.
Salient features of FCRA 2010:
The FCRA was enacted in 1976 in order to maintain strict control over voluntary organisations and political associations that received foreign fundings.
In the year 1984, an amendment was made to the act requiring all the Non Governmental Organisations to register themselves with the Home Ministry. In 2010, the act was repealed and a new act with strict provisions was enacted.
Provisions of the FCRA 2010:
A provision was made for the cancellation of registrations of NGOs if the Home Ministry believes that the organisation is political and not neutral.
The registration certificate granted to the NGOs under the 2010 act came with a five year validity.
A provision was inserted stating that the assets of the person who has become defunct needs to be disposed off in a manner stated by the government.
A separate account needs to be maintained by the organisations to deposit the Foreign Contributions received and no other funds except for Foreign Contributions shall be deposited in that account.
Every bank would be obligated to report to the prescribed authority, the amount of foreign remittances received and other related details such as the source, manner of receipt etc.
Who can accept Foreign Contribution?
Organizations working for definite cultural, social, economic, educational or religious programs, if and only if they are
Who are debarred from receiving Foreign Contribution?
The Year 2000 problem, also known as the Y2K problem, the Millennium bug, Y2K bug, the Y2K glitch, or Y2K, refers to events related to the formatting and storage of calendar data for dates beginning in the year 2000. Problems were anticipated, and arose, because many programs represented four-digit years with only the final two digits – making the year 2000 indistinguishable from 1900. The assumption of a twentieth-century date in such programs could cause various errors, such as the incorrect display of dates and the inaccurate ordering of automated dated records or real-time events.
Bois Locker Room
The Delhi police Cyber Cell has registered an FIR after following a complaint about an online Instagram group, police have also apprehended a 15 year old boy from South Delhi for his alleged involvement in a viral Instagram group named ‘Bois Locker Room’, where a bunch of school going boys objectified young girls and discussed their body parts.
After we came to know, we registered an FIR under Sections 465 (forgery), 471 (using as genuine a forged document or electronic record), 469 (forgery for purpose of harming reputation), 509 (word, gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman) and Sections 67 (publishing or transmitting obscene material in electronic form) and 67A (publishing or transmitting of material containing sexually explicit act in electronic form) of the IT Act.
Facebook, Instagram’s parent company, also responded to the matter and said, “We absolutely do not allow behaviour that promotes sexual violence or exploits anyone, especially women and young people, and have actioned content violating our Community Standards as we were made aware of it. We have policies that disallow the sharing of non-consensual intimate imagery, as well as threats to share such imagery and we take this issue very seriously. Ensuring our community can express themselves in a safe and respectful way is our top priority.”
2 community groups in Tripura have opposed the resettlement of Brus from Mizoram to Tripura.
A joint team of the Nagarik Suraksha Mancha, mostly representing Bengali people displaced from the erstwhile East Pakistan post partition in 1947 .
Northern Tripura has a sizeable Mizo population concentrated in the subdivision’s Jampui Hill area.
Who are Brus?
Brus conflict with Mizos
Resettlement package for Brus
Germany extends ban on Hezbollah
German police raided five sites linked to the Lebanese Shia group Hezbollah, as authorities announced Thursday that they were banning activities by its political wing in Germany.
The raids, intended to prevent evidence about possible front organisations being destroyed, took place at mosques and community centres in Berlin, Bremen, Muenster, Recklinghausen and Dortmund.
German lawmakers last year called on the government to extend an existing ban on activities by the group’s militant wing to include those of its political branch. At the time, officials had warned that such a move was legally difficult, because Hezbollah doesn’t have any official presence in Germany.
The Interior Ministry said the decree issued on Thursday bans all activities in support of the group in Germany, including the use of its symbols or publications. Hezbollah supporters have staged annual anti-Israel marches in Berlin for several years.
How is Hezbollah involved in the Syrian Civil War?
The global military expenditure rose to $1917 billion in 2019 with India and China emerging among the top three spenders, according to a report by a Swedish think tank, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).
The annual report ‘Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2019’ was released by the SIPRI
Reason for rise in India’s military expenditure
cluding defence pensions, accounts for about 1.5% of the country’s GDP, the lowest in recent times.
In comparison, Pakistan’s military expenditure rose by 70% over the decade 2010–19, to reach $10.3 billion while the military burden increased from 3.4% of GDP in 2010 to 4% in 2019, says the report. Pakistan was at the 24th position in 2019 compared to 19th in 2018.
Global military spending
SIPRI is an independent international institute dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
Established in 1966, SIPRI provides data, analysis and recommendations, based on open sources, to policymakers, researchers, media and the interested public.
Based in Stockholm, SIPRI is regularly ranked among the most respected think tanks worldwide.
India top fifth sextortion countries
Part of: GS-III- Internal security Cyber crime (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
As per a report by SophosLab, India is among the top 10 countries from where the sextortion spam emails originate.
Researchers from the British cybersecurity firm Sophos traced the origin of millions of sextortion spam emails sent between September 2019 and February 2020 to conclude that India is among the top 10 sextortion mail source countries.
Being the source of 3.73 per cent of all sextortion emails, India is placed at fifth position preceded by Vietnam at the top (7.01 per cent), Brazil at second (5.89 per cent), Argentina at third (4.76 per cent), and Korea at fourth (4.76 per cent).
What is sextortion?
Sextortion is a widely used form of spam attack where cybercriminals extort money by claiming to have receiver’s compromising pictures or evidence of their sexual activity. The attacker threatens to share such pieces of evidence with the receiver’s friends and family unless they pay ransom money.
Sextortion email is not different from any other phishing. It’s more of a subcategory of ransomware emails. It includes malware that can hack the system upon accepting or activating the link.
The National Cyber Security Policy (NCSP) 2013 is a policy framework by the Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY) under the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MoCIT). The NCSP underscores the need for the creation of a secure computing environment and generating adequate trust in online systems and networks.
National Cyber Security Policy 2013 Objectives
Key Highlights of National Cyber Security Policy 2013
MHA CAUTION AGAINST THE USE OF ZOOM MEETING PLATFORMS-CERTin
Home Ministry has directed that Zoom meeting platform should not be used by government officials and offices for any purpose. In an advisory Ministry of Home Affairs has cautioned against the use of this platform. It further stated that even private users should ensure that Cert-in advisory regarding the use of this platform should be followed. The Cert-in advisory is mainly focused towards prevention of unauthorised entry in the conferences and it also prevents participants to carry out any malicious activity on the terminal of other participants. Private users have been advised to refer to the Cert-in advisory on its website to restrict users through access passwords. Zoom platform has been used for holding video conferences in light of the lockdown imposed in many countries. Many leading private companies have already restricted usage of this platform amid growing concerns over its security.
CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) is a government-mandated information technology (IT) security organization. The purpose of CERT-In is to respond to computer security incidents, report on vulnerabilities and promote effective IT security practices throughout the country. CERT-In was created by the Indian Department of Information Technology in 2004 and operates under the auspices of that department. According to the provisions of the Information Technology Amendment Act 2008, CERT-In is responsible for overseeing administration of the Act. In the recent Information Technology Amendment Act 2008, CERT-In has been designated to serve as the national agency to perform the following functions in the area of cyber security:
• Collection, analysis and dissemination of information on cyber incidents.
• Forecast and alerts of cyber security incidents
• Emergency measures for handling cyber security incidents
• Coordination of cyber incident response activities.
• Issue guidelines, advisories, vulnerability notes and whitepapers relating to information security practices, procedures, prevention, response and reporting of cyber incidents.
• Such other functions relating to cyber security as may be prescribed.
The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) has signed cooperation pacts with its counterparts in Malaysia, Singapore and Japan for cyber security. The Memoranda of Understanding (MoUs) will promote closer cooperation for exchange of knowledge and experience in detection, resolution and prevention of security-related incidents between India and the three countries.
Round Tripping of Funds
Prevention of Money-Laundering Act
Aarogya Setu App and security issues
Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III-Internal security
Privacy Judgement as a guiding tool
Steps taken by Government to strengthen Privacy Regime
Two Years of Privacy Judgement
The judgment in K.S. Puttaswamy effected little change in the government’s thinking or practice as it related to privacy and the personal data of its citizens.
Jai Hind Jai Bharat
National Security Act, 1980 / UAPA
Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III-Internal security
The UP and Indore district administration invoked the National Security Act (NSA), 1980, against four persons accused of instigating residents of a locality to pelt stones and chase away health workers.
Health workers were in the locality to trace the contact history of a Covid-19 patient.
National Security Act, 1980
Criticism against the NSA Act
It needs to be noted that the Act is 40 years old. Changes are required to ensure that the Act is not used arbitrarily. Arbitrary use of the Act hampers democracy and basic rights of an individual. Even, the Supreme Court has held that the law of preventive detention has to be strictly construed and meticulous compliance with the procedural safeguards, is mandatory and vital.
The UAPA – an enhancement on the TADA (Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act), which was allowed to lapse in 1995 and the Prevention of Terrorism Act (POTA) was repealed in 2004 — was originally passed in 1967 under the then Congress government led by former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Eventually amendments were brought in under the successive United Progressive Alliance (UPA) governments in 2004, 2008 and 2013.
Pt shot: At present, NIA is functioning as the Central Counter Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency in India established under NIA Act 2008.
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Act was passed by both Houses of the Parliament:
Arguments in Favour of Amendments:
While none will question the need for stringent laws that show ‘zero tolerance’ towards terrorism, the government should be mindful of its obligations to preserve fundamental rights while enacting legislation on the subject.
NCC volunteer cadets to fight COVID-19 under ‘Exercise NCC Yogdan’
On April 2, 2020 the National Cadet Corps (NCC) has offered its volunteer cadets to assist the civilian authorities to fight COVID-19 under ‘Exercise NCC Yogdan’.
i.The cadets must not be employed to handle law & order situations or for active military duties or at hot spots.
ii.Only the Senior Division volunteer cadets above 18 years will be employed in small cohesive groups of 8 to 20 under the supervision of Permanent Instructor Staff or/and an Associate NCC Officer.
iii.Before the cadets are sent to duty, ground conditions & stipulated requirements must be confirmed.
iv.For employment of volunteer cadets the State governments /district administration must send requisition through State NCC Directorates & the details will be coordinated at Directorate/Group Headquarters/Unit level with state government/local civil authority.
It is operated under the Ministry of Defence & is the largest uniform youth organization in the country which involves various social service and community development activities. It contributes to the national cause during natural calamities like floods, cyclones, etc.,
Headquarters– New Delhi, India
Director General– Lieutenant general(Lt Gen) Rajeev Chopra