INADEQUATE MUNICIPAL FINANCES
For effective municipal governance, the health of municipal finance is a critical element that will determine whether India realizes its economic and development goals.
Growing fiscal deficits, constrain in tax base expansion and weakening of institutional mechanisms remain a major challenge for the urban local body (UBLs). Revenue loss after the implementation of GST and the pandemic has further deteriorated the situation.
The urban population and India
IMPORTANCE OF PESA ACT, 1996
Gujarati political parties are attempting to win over tribal voters by promising to adhere closely to the 1996 Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act.
The State PESA Rules were made applicable to 4,503-Gram Sabhas under 2,584 village panchayats in 50 tribal talukas in eight districts of Gujarat by notification of the rules in January 2017.
The Act, however, has not been strictly adhered to.
The PESA law has