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Geo Tourism in India

What is Geo Tourism? Geotourism is tourism associated with geological attractions and destinations. Geotourism deals with the abiotic natural and built environments. Geotourism was first defined in England by Thomas Alfred Hose in 1995. National Geological Monuments India is a country with diverse physical attributes, rich cultural heritage and eventful ancient history. Tourism plays a major role in showcasing this great country to the rest of the world. Of late, there has b

25 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

Tiger Reserves in India

About Tiger Reserves: Tiger Reserves are protected areas that aim at conserving the habitat to ensure a viable population of the tigers along with their prey base in their habitat. Declared by: Tigers Reserves are declared by the National Tiger Conservation Authority via Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act,2006 under Project Tiger. Project Tiger:

22 January, 2022 GS-III Biodiversity & Environment

National Electricity Policy-Revision

National Electricity Policy-Revision GS-Paper-3: Economic reform – UPSC PRELIMS – Mains Application The government has decided to revise the National Electricity Policy-NEP by invoking Section 3 of the Electricity Act, 2003. The 2003 Act mandates that the central government shall prepare the NEP in consultation with the state governments and the Central Electricity Authority. The government has constituted a committee now. It would finalise the draft NEP which has been circu

21 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Hydrogen Fuel is produced through Steam methane reforming: Extraction of hydrogen from methane. But these release CO2 and CO which leads to Climate change. Electrolysis: Separating hydrogen and oxygen atoms. HFC contains NOx as pollutants since Hydrogen (molecule) uses Nitrogen as the impurity. If water is added, pollution can be reduced. To cool down Hydrogen gas into a liquid state, temperature has to be brought down at 20 K. Hence it is difficult to use this fuel efficie

20 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

Payment Banks and Small Finance Banks

Payment Banks Provides small savings and current accounts < 1 lakh, Mutual Funds, Insurance products, remittances to workers. They are differentiated or restricted banks. It was announced in Union Budget 2014-2015. It was based on the recommendations of the Nachiket Mor Committee on Financial Inclusion. They cannot lend and cannot set up subsidiaries to undertake Non-banking Financial services (NBFS) (lease, hire purchase). They are bound to meet CRR and 75% SLR and 25% i

19 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

Goods and Service Tax - UPSC Analysis

What is Goods and Service Tax? Through 101st Amendment Act guided by Art 301 Govt introduced GST (Goods and Service Tax) includes both Goods and Services Art 279 A is introduced to make GST workable. Enforced from 1 July 2017. Exceptions Except for Alcohol and Electricity, all items included. 5 Petroleum products are temporarily out of Goods and Service Tax (to control losses to the State): Crude Oil, petrol, diesel, ATF and Natural Gas. GST Council

18 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

Electric Vehicles and Government Policies

Electric Vehicle Policy India Electric Vehicle as the car uses alternate fuel electricity instead of petrol or diesel. An electric vehicle uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. There is a growing acceptance for hybrid and electric cars in the country and more and more manufacturers are entering this niche segment with an express objective of lowering the fuel import bill and running cost of vehicles. Conversion of vehicles to electric vehicles has the

17 January, 2022 GS-III Biodiversity & Environment

PLI Scheme for Advance Chemistry Cell (ACC) Battery

What are ACC Batteries? ACCs are the new generation of advanced storage technologies that can store electric energy, either as electrochemical or as chemical energy, and convert it back to electric energy as and when required. They will cater not only to electric vehicles but also to the consumer electronics industry, solar rooftops, and electricity grids. PLI Scheme for ACC Battery The Government on 12th May, 2021 approved a Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme for m

16 January, 2022 GS-III Biodiversity & Environment

India State of Forest Report 2021

Who prepares India State of Forest Report, 2021? ‘India State of Forest Report 2021’ is prepared by the Forest Survey of India (FSI) which has been mandated to assess the forest and tree resources of the country. The ISFR-2021 provides information on forest cover, tree cover, mangrove cover, growing stock, carbon stock in India’s forests, forest fire monitoring, forest cover in tiger reserve areas, above ground estimates of biomass using SAR data & climate change ho

15 January, 2022 GS-III Biodiversity & Environment

Nanotechnology in India

What is Nano Technology? Nanotechnology in India is the development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and develop new devices and material structures in the physical size range of 1-100 nanometres (nm), where 1 nanometre is equal to one billionth or 10^−9 of a meter. Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. On the other hand, the smalles

14 January, 2022 GS-III S&T

Artificial Intelligence in India

Industrial Revolution 4.0 It includes Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Blockchain AR, VR, IoT, Supercomputing, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, 3D printing. IoT (Internet of Things): is defined by ICT as a dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities. Deep Learning or Hierarchical Learning is part of machine learning methods based on learning data representations. In deep learning, each level learns to transform its input data into a slightly more abstract

13 January, 2022 GS-III S&T

India State of Forest Report 2019

What is India State of Forest Report 2019? India State of Forest Report 2019 is the 16th biennial assessment of India’s forests by the Forest Survey of India, an organisation under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC). FSI undertakes the National Forest Inventory to assess the growing stock in forests and TOF (Tree Outside Forest), bamboo resource, carbon stock and to assess the dependence of the people living in Forest Fringe Vil

13 January, 2022 GS-III Biodiversity & Environment

Lightweight anti-tank missile tested by DRDO

What is Man Portable Anti Tank Guided Missile? The MPATGM is a third-generation anti tank guided missile (ATGM), which has been developed by DRDO in partnership with Indian defense contractor VEM Technologies Ltd. Fitted with a high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warhead, the MPATGM boasts a top attack capability and has a maximum engagement range of about 2.5 kilometers.. Design and development of MPATGM weapon system is undertaken for deployment by Infantry and

12 January, 2022 GS-III S&T

National Hydrogen Energy Mission (NHEM)

About National Hydrogen Energy Mission, 2021-22 The Union Budget for 2021-22 has announced a National Hydrogen Energy Mission (NHEM) to draw up a road map for using hydrogen as an energy source. This initiative can transform transportation. NHM initiative will capitalise on one of the most abundant elements on earth (Hydrogen) for a cleaner alternative fuel option. About NHEM: Focus on the generation of hydrogen from green power resources. To link India’s growing renew

11 January, 2022 GS-III S&T

What is Mission Indradhanush ?

Mission Indradhanush was launched in 2014 under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 1. Between 2009 - 2013, only 1% coverage per year has increased. We have to make it to 5%. 2. Objectives of Mission Indradhanush: We have the aim of full coverage by 2020. Cover all those children who are either unvaccinated or are partially vaccinated against vaccine-preventable diseases. 3. New Vaccines: Inactivated Polio Vaccine, Rotavac (Diarrhoea); Measles-Rubella vaccine

09 January, 2022 GS-III S&T

Startup Ecosystem in India

What is the Startup Ecosystem in India? India has the 3rd largest startup ecosystem in the world; expected to witness YoY growth of consistent annual growth of 12-15% India has about 50,000 startups in India in 2018; around 8,900 – 9,300 of these are technology-led startups 1300 new tech startups were born in 2019 alone implying there are 2-3 tech startups born every day. Definition of Startup Expanded An entity shall be considered as a Startup: Upto a p

09 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

DPIIT-Dept for Promotion of Industry & Internal Trade

Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industries DIPP was established in 1995 and reconstituted in 2000 with the merger of the Dept of Industrial Development. It was renamed in 2019. The following are the Functions of DPIIT e-Commerce matters were transferred to DPIIT in 2018. In 2019: internal trade, the welfare of traders and their employees and Start- ups. Formulate and implement ind

08 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

Small Finance Banks in India

Why in news? The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) said it has received applications from two more entities — Cosmea Financial Holdings Private Ltd. and Tally Solutions Private Ltd. — seeking licences to operate Small Finance Banks (SFBs). This is as per RBI’s guidelines for ‘on tap’ licensing of small finance banks in the private sector. With this, a total of six entities have applied for the licence. The other four applicants who were named in April 2021 are

07 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

SAAR program

As a part of Azadi Ka Amrut Mahotsav, Smart Cities Mission, MoHUA has launched “Smart cities and Academia Towards Action & Research (SAAR)” program, a joint initiative of MoHUA, National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA) and leading Indian academic institutions of the country. Under the program, 15 premier architecture & planning institutes of the country will be working with Smart Cities to document landmark projects undertaken by the Smart Cities Mission.

06 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

Atal Pension Yojana (APY)

Atal Pension Yojana (APY) addresses the old age income security of the working poor and the longevity risks among the workers in the unorganised sector. It encourages the workers in unorganised sector to voluntarily save for their retirement. The Government had launched the scheme with effect from 1st June 2015. The scheme replaces the Swavalamban Yojana / NPS Lite scheme. Benefits of Atal Pension Yojana Fixed pension for the subscribers ranging between Rs.1000 to Rs.

06 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

Smart Cities Mission (SCM)

About Smart Cities Mission (SCM) For economic growth, improve Quality of life, local development, harness technology to create smart outcomes. It will cover 100 cities and it will be from 2015 to 2020. It is a mission mode project. The Smart City Mission is under MoHUA. SCM will be operated as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme Center will give Rs. 48000 crores over 5 years with Rs. 100 crore per city per year. An e

06 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

Border Roads Organisation (BRO)

Context: The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) has raised its benchmark of excellence yet again by extending access to the formidable Zojila at an altitude of 11,649 ft, that links the Union Territory of Ladakh with the rest of the country. For the first time, the Zojila pass remained open beyond 31st December. It is the arterial road connecting Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh from the rest of the country. The pass was opened on May 18, last year. About Border

05 January, 2022 GS-III Internal security

National Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT)3.0

What is National Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT) 3.0? National Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT) is an initiative to provide the use of best-developed technological solutions in the education sector to enhance the employability of the youth on a single platform for learners' convenience. These solutions use Artificial Intelligence for a personalized and customized learning experience for better learning outcomes and skill development in the niche areas. AICTE,

04 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

Military exercises of India

List of all Military Exercises of India 2021 Military Exercises of India with Neighbours Sampriti: India & Bangladesh Mitra Shakti: India & Sri Lanka Surya Kiran: India & Nepal Hand in Hand Exercise: India & China Ekuverin: India & Maldives Military Exercises of India with Other countries Maitree Exercise: India & Thailand Vajra Prahar: India & US Yudh Abhyas: India & US Nomadic Elephant: India & Mongolia Garuda Shakti: Indi

04 January, 2022 GS-III Internal security

I4C - Indian Cybercrime Coordination Centre

What is the Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C)? It is set up under the newly created Cyber and Information Security (CIS) division of the MHA. 7 components of the Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C): National Cyber Crime Threat Analytics Unit National Cyber Crime Reporting Portal National Cyber Crime Training Centre Cyber Crime Ecosystem Management Unit National Cyber Crime Research and Innovation Centre National Cyber Crime Forensic Labora

04 January, 2022 GS-III Internal security

‘Padhe Bharat’: 100 days reading campaign

What is ‘Padhe Bharat’ campaign? Padhe Bharat is a 100 Days Reading Campaign which is in alignment with the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020. It emphasises on the promotion of joyful reading culture for children by ensuring the availability of age-appropriate reading books for children in local/mother tongue/regional/tribal Language. There is a need to create an enabling environment in which students read for pleasure and develop their skills through a process tha

02 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

Goods and Service Tax – GST (Indirect Tax)

Goods and Service Tax (GST) -Indirect Tax Through 101st Amendment Act guided by Art 301 Govt introduced GST includes both Goods and Services Art 279 A is introduced to make GST workable. Enforced from 1 July 2017. Exceptions Except for Alcohol and Electricity, all items included. 5 Petroleum products are temporarily out of GST (to control losses to the State): Crude Oil, petrol, diesel, ATF and Natural Gas. GST Council Constitutional Body. Responsi

01 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

Index of core industries

Index of eight core industries The eight core sector industries include coal, crude oil, natural gas, refinery products, fertiliser, steel, cement and electricity. The eight Core Industries in decreasing order of their weightage: Refinery Products> Electricity> Steel> Coal> Crude Oil> Natural Gas> Cement> Fertilizers. Industry Weight (In percentage) Petroleum & Refinery p

01 January, 2022 GS-III Economic Issues

Consumer Protection Rules, 2021

Consumer Protection (Jurisdiction of the District Commission, the State Commission and the National Commission) Rules, 2021 1) Pecuniary Jurisdiction The Consumer Protection Act, 2019 The Consumer Protection Act, 2019 promulgates a three-tier quasi-judicial mechanism for redressal of consumer disputes namely district commissions, state commissions and national commissions. The Act also stipulates the pecuniary jurisdiction of each tier of consumer commission. As per the existin

31 December, 2021 GS-III Economic Issues

Tiger Reserves and Tiger Census- UPSC

Tiger Reserves and Tiger Census Tigers are at the top of the food chain and are sometimes referred to as “umbrella species" that is their conservation also conserve many other species in the same area. More than 80% of the world’s wild tigers are in India, and it’s crucial to keep track of their numbers. India’s five tiger landscapes are: Shivalik Hills

31 December, 2021 GS-III Biodiversity & Environment

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