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UPSC Courses

GENERAL STUDIES MAINS NOTES

With SYLLABUS ANALYSIS

PAPER SUBJECT CHAPTER TOPIC SUB TOPIC RELEVANCE PREVIOUS YEAR PAPER
G.S.1
Culture
Culture
India - oldest civilisation of the world
Debate regarding official language and constitutional provisions
Arts
Painting Cave Murals and Frescoes Pallava Mughal Rajasthani Pahari Modern
Drawings
Sculpture
Textile craft
Papier Mache
Metal crafts
Photography
Filmmaking
Dance
Music
Drama
Puppetry
Martial Arts
Stand-up Comedy
Architecture
Architecture
Indus Valley
Rock Cut Architecture
Mauryan Architecture
Helinistic/ Greco-Bactrian/ Central Asian
Amravati school of architecture
Gupta/ Nagara style (incl. Panchayatana style)
Southern India Pallavas Cholas Kakatiyas Chalukyas/ Vesara/ Karnataka Hoysalas Vijayanagar Nayaka
Islamic Architecture Seljuk/ Slave Dynasty Khilji Tughlaq Lodhi Mughal Adil Shahi Qutb Shahi Timurid
Regional Architecture
Other Architecture Gothic architecture Victorian architecture Indo-Sarsenic style Art Deco style Sustainable/ Ecology-friendly architecture styles
Norms, Values and Philosophies
Religion
Miscellaneous
Buddhism
Jainism
Sufism
Sikhism
Bhakti movement
Zoroastrianism
Others
Institutions
India Year Book
ASI
Anthropological Survey of India
CIIL, Mysuru
Sangeet Natak Akademi
Sahitya Akademi
Lalit Kala Kendra
INTACH
National Art Gallery
Others
Government Programs and Schemes
Swadesh Darshan Scheme
Paryatan Parv
Ek Bharat Shreshth Bharat
Adopt a Heritage Scheme
HRIDAY scheme
Swachh Bharat Iconic Place
Significant personalities
Significant personalities
Travellers
Chinese Travellers - Fa Hsien, Huen Tsang
Arab Travellers - Al Biruni, Al Masudi, Ibn Batuta etc.
European Travellers - Marco Polo
History
Significant events during freedom struggle
Before 1857 Indian on the eve of British conquest Factors for success of British in India British conquest of Bengal Battle of Plassey Battle of Buxar Dual Government Mysore's Resistance to the Company Anglo-Maratha struggle for supremacy Conquest of Sindh Conquest of Punjab Extension of British Paramountcy through Administrative Policy Relation of British India with neighboring countries Anglo-French Wars Regulating Act 1773 Pitts India Act 1784 Charter Act 1793 Charter Act 1813 Charter Act 1833 Charter Act 1853 Peasant movements and tribal uprisings Resistance against British religious reforms Military revolts before 1857
1857-1905 Major causes of the 1857 revolt Beginning and Spread of the revolt Suppression of revolt Causes of failure of the Revolt Nature of 1857 Revolt Factors for growth of Modern Nationalism Political Associations before INC and their work Indian National Congress Moderates phase Drain of Wealth theory Evaluation of Early Nationalists Government of India Act 1858 Indian Councils Act 1861 Indian Councils Act 1892 Peasant, Tribal and Worker movements Economic Policy changes of British Administrative changes after 1857
1905-1919 Growth of Militant Nationalism Bengal Partition Proposal Swadeshi and Boycott Movement Evaluation of Swadeshi Movement Moderates versus Extremists Revolutionary Activity (Phase I and Phase II) Morley-Minto Reforms (1909) World War - I and Nationalist response Home Rule League movement Lucknow Session of INC 1916 Montague's statement in 1917 Peasant and Tribal movements Significant personalities Gandhiji in South Africa Gandhiji early phase in India
1919-1935 Why Nationalist Resurgence now Government of India Act, 1919 (Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms) Rowlatt Act Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement Swarajists and No-changers Spread of Marxism and Socialism Revolutionary Activity Phase 3 Growth of Communalism Anti-Simon Commission upsurge Nehru Report Jinnah's 14 demands Lahore Congress Session 1929 Civil Disobedience Movement Round Table Conferences Gandhi-Irwin Pact Communal Award and Poona Pact Gandhiji's Harijan Campaign Debate on future strategy Government of India Act 1935
1935-1947 Congress rule in Provinces Second World War and Nationalist Response Pakistan Resolution (1940) August Offer (1940) Individual Satyagraha (1941) Cripps Mission (1942) Quit India Movement (1942) Gandhi Fasts (1943) Famine of 1943 Rajagopalachari Formula Desai-Liaqat Pact Wavell Plan (1945) Indian National Army Subhash Chandra Bose life timeline Post War National Upsurges (1945-46) Congress Elections (1946) Cabinet Mission Plan (1946) Communal Holocaust and the Interim Government Atlee's Statement (1947) Mountbatten Plan India Independence Act 1947 Integration of States Post war phase peasant and tribal uprisings
Significant personalities during freedom struggle
Lords/ Viceroys and important legislations and events during their tenure
Moderates
Extremists
Revolutionary Terrorists
Mahatama Gandhi
Jawahar Lal Nehru
Subhash Chandra Bose
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
B R Ambedkar
M A Jinnah
Others
Contributions from different parts of the country during freedom struggle
Peasant movements
Tribal movements
Women in freedom struggle
Youth in freedom struggle
Lawyers in freedom struggle
Businessmen in freedom struggle
Workers in freedom struggle
Modern India from mid of 18th century to today
Social and Religious Reform Movements Brahmo Samaj Arya Samaj Ramakrishna Mission Theosophical society Deoband School Wahabi Movement Aligarh Movement Akali Mission Young Bengal movement Rahnumai Mazdayasan Sabha Prarthana Samaj
Indian rennaisance
Women movements Abolition of Sati Preventing Female infanticide Widow remarriage Child marriage Women education
Dalit Rights movements
Historical Underpinnings of the Constitution
Judicial system since 18th century
Civil Services since 18th century
Police reforms since 18th century
Indian Economy since 18th century
Press Evolution
Education reforms since 18th century
Post-independence consolidation and reorganization
Dhar Committee, JVP Committee, Fazl Ali Committee, State Reorganisation Act
Alteration in boundaries and status of the states
Rise of opposition and regional politics
Language issue
Rise of internal security threats
Tribal society integration
World History
World History
American Revolution
French Revolution
Industrial Revolution
World War - 1
Russian Revolution
World War - 2
League of Nations and United Nations
Gulf Wars
Cold War
Cold War 2.0
Mutually Assured Destruction Doctrine
Korean War
Vietnam war
Redrawal of national boundaries
Colonization
Decolonization
Evolution of terrorism in the world
Israel-Palestine conflict
Israel-Iran conflict
Yemen crisis
Sryia crisis
Turkey-Syria issue
Qatar issue
Iraq-Iran war
Iran Revolution
Kurdistan issue
External state actors in West Asia
Lebanon crisis
Arab Spring
Arab Spring 2.0
Venezuela crisis
Bolivia crisis
Chile political crisis
Argentina issue
Brazil issues
European fascism and protectionism
European rising extremism and radicalisation
Eurozone economic crisis
Brexit
France Yellow protest
Faultlines in EU
Faultlines in NATO
Ukraine Crisis
Climate change protests
Unstable Coalition governments in Europe
USSR disintegration
Decolonisation in South Asia and South East Asia
Non-Aligned Movement
Afghanistan issue
Pakistan history
Sri Lankan political crisis
Maldives political crisis
Rohingya Muslim issue
South East Asia crisis and formation of ASEAN
Chinese history
China-Taiwan dispute
Tibetan refugee issue
Hong-Kong anti-government protests
Evolution of Russia and China relations
South China Sea dispute
Nepal political crisis
Bangladesh history (since 1947)
North Korea issue
Other Asian issues
USA political issues
Africa - Underdevelopment crisis
Africa - decolonisation
Ethnic conflicts in Africa
Significant political issues in Africa
Libya crisis
Sudan crisis
Capitalism, Communism, Socialism and other political ideologies and their forms and effects on society
Capitalism - its forms and effects on society
Communism - its forms and effects on society
Socialism - its forms and effects on society
Democracy - its forms and effects on society
Fascism - its forms and effects on society
Liberalism - its forms and effects on society
Environmentalism - its forms and effects on society
Liberalism versus National Populism
Society (Social Issues)
Salient Features of Indian Society
Salient features of South Asian society
Salient features of agricultural society
Salient features of industrial society
Salient features of tertiary society
Salient features of tribal society
Salient features of society in different parts of country
Caste system
Unity in diversity
Tolerance and love
Degree of equality (in status, in representation, in opportunities etc.)
Social Institutions/ Entities: - Family, Marriage and Kinship - Caste and Tribe - Politics - Economics and Market - Religion - Education
Degree of urbanism
Rule of law is common across all caste, religion, region, gender
Patriarchal, Patrilineal, Patrilocal systems
Salient features of modern Indian society
Cultural mosaic society - past to present
Settlement pattern
Social interactions and interdependencies
Patterns of social inequality and social exclusion (Class 12 NCERT)
Geography based societal norms and culture
Transition from 3rd to 4th stage of demographic transition model
Society and social media
Society and technology
Factors causing changes in society
Agencies of socialisation in the society (Class XI NCERT)
Social structure, stratification and processes in Indian society (Class XI NCERT)
Social Change and social order in rural and urban society (Class XI NCERT)
Environment and Society (Class XI NCERT)
Diversity of India
General note on diversity of India
Linguistic
Religious
Caste
Regional
Income group
Racial
Nation-state and state-nation debate (Class 12 NCERT)
Movements by various marginalised sections of society (role of civil society organisations)
Role of women and women organisations
Role of women - past to present
Women's movement in India - past to present
Role of women in different regions of country
Women and Population growth
Women and national freedom struggle
Role of women in post-independence era
Role of women in politics
Economic development of women - past to present
Role of women in globalisation
Role of women in social empowerment
Role of women in maintaining status quo or bringing change in the society
Role of women in poverty alleviation
Difference in role of women in rural and urban areas
Changing role of women due to globalisation or counter-globalisation
Role of women in Indian society and western society
Differences in roles of women in upper caste and lower caste
How far women movements have succeeded in case of lower caste women?
How far the movies are reflecting the changing role of women in present times?
Identify the role of women and their organisations to control crimes against women
Women empowerment and secularism
Challenges to women empowerment are common across space and time
Role of women in countering malnourishment
Population and related issues
Birth Rate
Death Rate
Population Stabilisation
Total Fertility Rate
IMR
MMR
Sex Ratio
Child Sex Ratio
Life Expectancy
Age Structure of the population
Dependency Ratio
Literacy
Rural-Urban differences
Migration
Malnutrition
Population theories - Malthus, Marx and DTM
Population and poverty relationship
Population Policy of India
Family Planning
Marginalised sections of population and their issues
Population and health issues
Poverty and Development issues
Concept of multi-dimensional poverty
Linkages of poverty and development
Poverty alleviation strategy since independence
Poverty alleviation programs
Inequality and poverty
Poverty and hunger
Aspirational Districts program
Urbanization and its issues
History of urbanisation
History of urban local bodies
Housing
Transportation and traffic congestion
Income based social stratification
Pollution
Health issues
Economic activities
Slums
Digitisation
Urban local bodies
Waste management
Migration
Crime
Urban planning
Electricity and Energy
Effects of globalization on Indian society
General note of effects of globalisation on Indian Society
Effects of globalization on South Asian society
Effects of globalization on agrarian society
Effects of globalization on industrial society
Effects of globalization on urban society
Effects of globalisation on marginalised sections of society
Social Empowerment
General note on social empowerment
Women empowerment
Youth empowerment
Child - Survival - Protection - Participation - Development
Scheduled Castes and Manual Scavengers
Scheduled Tribes, Denotified Tribes and Nomadic & Semi-nomadic tribes
Other Backward Castes/ Socially and Educationally Backward castes (OBC/ SEBC)
Old Age
Disabled or diseased
LGBTQI
Economically weaker sections
Minorities
Bonded labour
Secularism and Communalism
Secular traditions of India
Difference between Indian secularism and Western secularism
Constitutional provisions and important cases
Evolution of communalism in India
Major debates on secularism and communalism in India Role of state in maintaining secularism Human rights versus religious practices (Uniform Civil Code debate) Economic development versus social reforms - What is priority to ensure secularism? Majoritarianist politics versus Minority appeasement - pseudo-secularism? Power struggle or relative power deprivation? Positive tolerance or negative tolerance? Religious instruction or religious education? Communalism or communitarianism? Should state wise minorities be declared?
Regionalism
Regionalism in Indian context
Linguistic states helped strengthen Indian Unity
Rise of regional politics in post independence era
Demand for new states and its impact
Geography
Physical Geography
Earth and Solar System Geological Time Scale Prelims,Mains
Universe and associated issues
Climatology Weather and climate Air Pressure Structure and heating of atmosphere Tricellular model and planetary winds Wind movement, direction and related laws and ITCZ NLR, ALR, stability and instability Diabatic cooling and adiabatic cooling Fog formation and temperature inversion Monsoon, El-Nino, La-Nina, SO, Indian Ocean Dipole and recent researches Airmass Jet Streams Frontogenesis and Temperate cyclone Tropical cyclones and thunderstorms Local winds Climate change Urban heat Island Humidity and evaporation Heat Budget Aerosols and monsoon Southern Annular Mode at Antarctica and South pole
Geomorphology Endogenetic - Eustatic Forces Endogenetic - Isotatic Forces Endogenetic - Tectonic Forces Earthquake Volcanism and Vulcancity Tsunami Exogenetic - Weathering Exogenetic - Erosion Exogenetic - Transportation Exogentic - Deposition Landslides Continental Drift Theory Seafloor Spreading Plate tectonics and associated plate boundaries Himalaya Formation Interior of the Earth Drainage Pattern Cycle of Erosion
Oceanography Ocean bottom relief Temperature profile Salinity profile Marine life and oceanic deposits Ocean Currents Water Masses Marine heat wave
Biogeography
Mapping Water, ice-caps, land, air and other natural resources Geographical features and their locations Flora and fauna distribution World distribution of resources (including South Asia) Factors responsible for location of primary, secondary and tertiary sector industries
Human Geography
Settlements
Urbanisation and Urbanism
Population Geography
Race and Tribes - India and World
Demographic attributes Literacy and skills Work participation and occupational structure Age and gender distribution Religious profile Health profile
Economic Geography
Primary Activities - Agriculture
Primary Activities - Fishing
Primary Activities - Mining
Primary Activities - Forestry
World distribution of resources (including South Asia) Shield system minerals Coal Petroleum Uranium Renewable energy Rare Earth Minerals Bauxite Copper Limestone and Dolomite Other significant minerals
Industrial Corridors
Automobile Industry
Iron and Steel industry
Paper industry
IT industry
Thermal Power plants
Textile industry
Plastic industry
Fertiliser Industry
Cement industry
Petroleum refining industry
Sugar Industry
Industry revolution 4.0
Indian trade scenario
Logistics
Bank and financial services
Roads and highways
Urban mass transport
Pipeline
Railways
Waterways
Interlinking of the rivers
Airways and Airports
Ports and sea trade
Digital transport and communication
Space based transport and navigation
Tourism and other tertiary activities
Factors responsible for location of primary, secondary and tertiary sector industries
Environment Geography
Flora and Fauna Distribution
Water resources
Ice-caps
Land
Air
Geographical features and their locations
Forests
Mangroves
Coral Reefs
Fishes
Tigers
Cattles, Buffaloes and other domesticated animals
Birds, Bees, butterflies etc.
G.S.2
Polity
Constitutional Framework
Historical Underpinnings
Evolution
Features
Amendments
Significant provisions
Basic Structure
Preamble
Union and its territory (Article 1-4)
Citizenship Citizenship Act National Population Register National Register of Citizens Overseas Citizen of India Foreigners Act 1946 and Foreigners Tribunals Order Passport Act and Immigration related laws
Fundamental Rights History Features Significance Status vis-a-vis DPSP Amendability Article 13 Article 14-18 (Equality) Article 19-22 (Liberty) Article 23-24 (Against exploitation) Article 25-28 (Secularism) Article 29 and 30 (Cultural and Educational Rights) Article 31A, 31B, 31C Article 32 - writs Other significant provisions
Directive Principles of State Policy
Fundamental Duties
System of Government
Centre-State Relations
Inter-state relations
Emergency Provisions
Seventh Schedule
Federalism and related issues Federal System Evolution of federalism in India Comparison with other federal polities Cooperative Federalism Competitive federalism Issues between Centre and the States Issues between state-state Issues between Centre and UT Recent cases Trends in Federalism Critical analysis of federalism in India General doctrines related to federalism
Separation of Powers between various organs Legislature versus Executive Legislature versus Judiciary Judiciary versus Executive Separation of powers and doctrine of popular sovereignty (republic) Strict Separation of power versus check and balance
Parliamentary System and Presidential System
Sources of law in the country
Central Government
Parliament; powers and privileges, structure, functioning, conduct of business and associated issues Members of Parliament Speaker and Chairman Motions and Resolution Budget Powers and Privileges Control on Executive Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha Parliamentary Committees Parliament Bills
President
Vice-President
Prime Minister
Central Council of Ministers
Cabinet Committees
Organisation, Structure and Functioning of the Executive
Ministries and Departments of Government
Adequate size of cabinet
State Government
State Legislature; powers and privileges, structure, functioning, conduct of business and associated issues
Governor
Chief Ministers and State Council of Ministers
Special Status of States
Local Government
Devolution of powers and finances at local level and challenges therein
Panchayati Raj
Urban local bodies
Three-tier structure
Aspirational Districts
Union Territories and Special Areas
Union Territories
Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas Prelims and Mains
Justice delivery system
Supreme Court
Judicial Review
Judicial Activism
Public Interest Litigation
High Court
Subordinate Courts
Dispute settlement mechanism and institutions
Arbitration
Conciliation
Mediation
Negotiation
Tribunals - CAT and others Mains
Judicial Doctrines in India
All India Judicial Services
Judicial Appointments
Judicial Accountability and independence
Informal judiciary
Police
Prisons
Legal services
Constitution Posts/ Bodies - appointment, powers, functions, and responsibilities
Election Commission of India
Union Public Service Commission
State Public Service Commission
Finance Commission
GST Council
Comptroller and Auditor General
National Commission of Scheduled Castes
National Commission of Scheduled Tribes
National Commission of Backward Classes
Attorney General of India
Advocate General of the state
Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities
Non-Constitutional bodies - appointment, powers, functions, and responsibilities
General note on statutory bodies, regulatory bodies and quasi-judicial bodies
NHRC, SHRC
National Commission for Women Mains,Prelims
National Commission for Protection of Child Rights Mains
National Commission for Minorities Prelims
Central Information Commission, State Information Commission
Central Vigilance Commission, State Vigilance Comm
CBI
Lokpal and Lokyuktas
National Investigation Agency
National Disaster Management Authority
National Law Commission
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)
National Financial Regulatory Authority (NFRA) and Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI)
University Grants Commission (UGC)
Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC) UPSC Mains,UPSC Prelims
Securities and Exchange Board of India
Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA)
IRDAI
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Developmen (NABARD)
SIDBI
Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)
National Medical Commission (NMC) and Medical Council of India (MCI)
National Highway Authority of India
Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA)
CPCB and SPCB
Bar Council of India
Registrar of Newspapers for India
Registrar of Companies
Competition Commission of India
Central Electricity Regulatory Commission
Directorate General of Hydrocarbons
Pharmacy Council of India
Atomic Energy Regulatory Authority
Central Council of Indian Medicine
National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA)
Inland Waterways Authority
Central Board of Film Certification
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)
Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)
Federation of Indian Export Organisations (FIEO)
Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) Mains,Prelims
Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO)
Directorate General of Mines Safety
Airports Economic Regulatory Authority
Airports Authority of India
Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) and PESO
Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunals
NCLT and NCLAT Mains
Income Tax Appellate Tribunal
Motor Vehicle Appellate Tribunal
NGT Prelims,Mains
Bureau of Police Research & Development (BPR&D) Mains
Political Dynamics
Salient features of Representation of People's Act 1950 Act 1951 Act Disqualifications under Constitution and RPA
Political parties Indian Party system National and Regional Parties Criminalisation of politics Political funding issues (Electoral bonds, foreign funding, disclosure of funding) Internal party democracy Coalition/ Multiparty system
Election Commission of India
Election Season Model Code of Conduct Role of media Speeches by candidates Court directives and powers of ECI
Electorate Electoral Roll updation Voting behaviour Voter turnout Migrant voters NRI Voters Inclusive elections Voter awareness and education
Election Laws Constitution Article (Part XV) (Article 324-329A) Supreme Court judgements Delimitation Act President and V-P Elections Act SC and ST Orders Amendment Act - inclusion and exclusion Election orders for political parties Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Act, 1959 Conduct of Election Rules, 1961
Electoral Reforms
Centre and State elections Simultaneous Elections Issue of local body elections Delimitation Issues raised during elections
Government formation and opposition Governor issues relating to government formation Speaker issues for defection Anti-Defection law Pre-poll and post-poll alliances Role of opposition
Election mechanism EVM and VVPAT First Past the Post system List system
Pressure Groups and Formal and Informal associations and their role in polity
National Integration
Other Constitutional Provisions
Cooperative societies
Official Language
Public Services
Oath
Table of precedence
Governance
Government Policies and interventions in various sectors, issues in design and implementation
General Note: - Design - Implementation - Education - Monitoring and Evaluation - Remediation
Agriculture and allied activities
Communications and Information Technology
Data led governance
Commerce
Education
Energy
Environment
Finance
Food Security
Health and Family Welfare
Food processing
Consumer Affairs
Housing
Urbanisation
Foreign policy
Industrialization
Mining
Law and Justice
Labor and Employment
Poverty eradication
Skill Development
Rural development
Local bodies
Science and Technology and Innovation
Transport
Water Resources
Welfare
Youth affairs and Sports
Governance, Transparency and Accountability
Governance
Right to Information
Official Secrets Act
Media
Whistleblower Bill
Accountability
e-Governance
Models, processes, practices, applications, limitations etc.
Digital India Bharat Net Project Prelims and Mains
Importance of data in e-governance
e-governance facilitating people participation
Citizen Charter
Citizen Charter, Transparency, accountability, institutional and other measures
Limitations and measures to improve citizen charter
Civil Services
Role of civil services in a democracy
Reform Perform Transform
NITI Aayog civil service reforms
Foundational values of civil services
Cadre based civil service organisation
Social Justice
Welfare of vulnerable sections
General note on mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies for vulnerable sections
Women - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Child - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies POCSO Act
Adolescent - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Scheduled Caste - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Scheduled Tribes - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Denotified Tribes, Nomadic Tribes, Semi-Nomadic Tribes - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Other Backward Classes - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Disabled - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Old Age - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Minorities - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
LGBTQI - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
EWS - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Drug Addict - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Unorganised Sector labor - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Migrants - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Disaster affected households - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Development processes and Development Industry
General note on development processes
General note on development industry/ service sector and its role
NGO
Self Help Groups
Role of Groups and associations, Charities, Donors and Institutional and other stakeholders
Poverty and Hunger
Poverty
Malnutrition or Hidden Hunger Poshan Abhiyan or National Nutrition Mission Prelims and Mains
Relationship between poverty and hunger and their consequences
Changing trends in relationship between poverty and hunger
Poverty
Relationship between poverty and hunger and their consequences
Changing trends in relationship between poverty and hunger
Policies and schemes to counter poverty and hunger and their critical analysis
Changing trends in hunger
Important reports and studies
Hunger and Nutrition survey in India and the world
Health
Universal Health Coverage - Access, Cost, Quality
National Health Policy
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Healthcare
Health Insurance
Health human resource
Health infrastructure
Private versus Public comparison
Health Delivery systems
Traditional Health systems in India
Disease burden in India
Health and technology
low cost innovations
Health financing
Health sector regulations
Medicines/ Drugs, Vaccines, Blood etc. related issues in healthcare
Mass movement on health; people participation
Various Diseases and their notes Tuberculosis (TB) Dengue in India
Education
Access, Equity, Quality, Affordability, Accountability
National Education Policy
Pre-school care and education
School education
Higher education
Vocational education
Digital education
Adult education
Value education
Public versus private
Human Resources
Development and Management of social services/ sectors - Human Resources
Human development in India
International Relations
Foreign Policy of India
Evolution of India's foreign policy - past to present
Components/ Pillars
Successes and Failures of policy
South Asia policy
Western democracies related policy
China policy
South East Asia policy
Indo-Pacific policy
Central Asia Policy
Russia policy
Africa policy
West Asia policy
Latin America policy
Indian Diaspora policy
United Nations and multilateralism policy
Regional grouping related policy
Policy on global issues - cold war, disarmament, conflicts, terrorism, climate change, south-south cooperation etc.
Neighborhood
India and its neighborhood - relations
Pakistan
Nepal
Bhutan
Sri Lanka
Maldives
Bangladesh
Myanmar
China
Afghanistan
Extended Neighborhood
Maritime Neighborhood
Agreements - Economic, Strategic, Security, Political, Social development, Cultural, Science and Technology, Environmental
India-USA
India-Russia
India-Iran
India-West Asia
India-Israel
India-Japan
India-South Korea
India-South Pacific Island Countries
India-Europe
India-France
India-Germany
India-UK
India-Australia
China with other countries
Pakistan with other countries
USA-Russia
Saudi-Iran
European Union-UK
USA-Indian Ocean Region
JCPOA
OBOR
Asia Africa Growth Corridor
Regional Comprehensive Economic Cooperation
Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP)
India-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement
India-MERCOSUR Preferential Trade Agreement
India-EU Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement
Maritime Domain Awareness Initiative
Generalised System of Preferences (GSP)
International North-South Transport Corridor
Eurasian Economic Corridor
Blue Dot Infrastructure Network - Japan, America, Australia
Global agreements or regional agreements involving India or impacting India
Indian Diaspora
International Organisations
G20
BRICS New Development Bank (NDB) Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA)
G7
G33
BASIC
Quad
Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation
Indian Ocean Naval Symposium
BIMSTEC
SAARC
East Asia Summit Paper II Mains
Russia-India-China
Japan-America-India
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Belt and Road Initiative Forum
Raisina Dialog
Shangri-La Dialog
Far East Summit
Arctic Dialog
India-Africa Forum Summit
FIPIC
FOCAC - China and Africa Cooperation
World Nuclear Summit
Nuclear Suppliers' Group
Australian Group
Waasenaar Agreement
Missile Technology Control Regime
World Bank
IMF
World Trade Organisation
Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
United Nations and its main organs
United Nations Funds and Programs
United Nations Specialized Agencies
United Nations Related Organisations
Other Entities of United Nations
Eastern Economic Forum Prelims and Mains
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
ASEAN and RCEP
Impact of policies of other countries on India
USA policy regarding India
Afghanistan issue
Syria issue
Protectionist and fascist policies of various countries
North Korea issue
Iran issue
Israel- Palestine issue
Venezuela issue
Sri Lanka political crisis
Maldives political crisis
USA policy
EU policy regarding NATO
EU policy on India
Japan policy in Indian Ocean
Australia policy in Indian Ocean
Russia policy
Blue Dot Infrastructure Network - Japan, America, Australia
Indo-Pacific Business Forum - J, A, A
Pivot to Central Asia policies of countries
G.S.3
Indian Economy
Indian Economy
Glossary

Array ( )

Indian Economy on the eve of independence

Array ( )

Indian Economy 1950-90

Array ( )

Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation

Array ( )

Indian Economy performance in last 5 years (Economic Surveys)

Array ( )

Macroeconomy Public Finance Agriculture, Food Processing, Food security Industry, Infrastructure Money and Banking Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments Prices and Inflation Sustainable development Education, Health, Employment, Gender Participation, Housing, Sanitation and Drinking Water Services
Factors in economic development

Array ( )

Physical Capital Human Capital Financial Capital Managerial Skills Technological know how and innovation Institutional framework Other peripheral factors - history, geography, constitutional values, liberal democracy, etc.
Years of slowdown in the past

Array ( )

1991 (Gulf crisis) 1997 (Asian financial crisis) 2000 (dotcom bubble) 2008 (sub-prime crisis) Eurozone crisis 2017 onwards Coronavirus crisis
Macro-economic analysis

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GDP Growth Investment rate (GFCF to GDP) Private final Consumption expenditure Savings rate Fiscal Deficit, Revenue Deficit Borrowings to GDP ratio Unemployment Inflation Current account deficit Interest rates Sectoral performance Wage levels Credit Growth Gross and Net Non-Performing Assets Exchange rate Tax Revenue and Non-Tax Revenue
Rural-Urban Economy

Array ( )

Organized and Unorganized Economy

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Indian Economy - comparison with other economies

Array ( )

Economic inequality

Array ( )

Challenges to Indian Economy

Array ( )

Solutions for reviving growth

Array ( )

Monetary Policy

Array ( )

RBI, MPC Monetary policy significance Banking reforms NBFC NPA Monetary Policy and impact on economy Monetary Policy during stagflation
Capital Markets

Array ( )

Primary and Secondary markets Internal and External markets FII, QFI, Offshore Derivatives Instruments, AIF etc.
Planning
General note on Indian planning

Array ( )

Five Year plans

Array ( )

3-tier planning architecture

Array ( )

Planning Commission and NITI Aayog

Array ( )

NITI Aayog achievements

Array ( )

Planning is only as effective as monitoring and evaluation

Array ( )

Issues related to planning in India

Array ( )

Resources and their mobilization
Resources - Natural, Human, Financial, Technological

Array ( )

Distribution of resources

Array ( )

Regional problems in effective mobilisation of resources

Array ( )

Benefit of effective resource mobilisation

Array ( )

Management of resources after mobilisation

Array ( )

Issues in identification of resources

Array ( )

Resource Efficiency

Array ( )

Growth and development
Five year plans and growth & development

Array ( )

Relationship between growth and development

Array ( )

Factors responsible to generate growth and development

Array ( )

Regional variations in growth and development

Array ( )

Issues of growth

Array ( )

Issues of development

Array ( )

Changing trends in growth

Array ( )

Changing trends in development

Array ( )

World Indices and Indian indices

Array ( )

Employment
General note on employment and unemployment

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Organized and Unorganized labor

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Formal and informal employment

Array ( )

Female Labour Force Participation

Array ( )

Labor reforms

Array ( )

Strategies to promote employment generation

Array ( )

Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it
Inclusive Growth

Array ( )

Critical Analysis of strategy since independence

Array ( )

Can strategy of inclusive growth ensure inclusiveness and sustainability together

Array ( )

Pillars of inclusive growth

Array ( )

Government Budgeting
Union Budgets

Array ( )

General note on Budgeting in India

Array ( )

Centre-State Financial relationship

Array ( )

Inclusive Budgeting

Array ( )

Deficit measuring

Array ( )

Tax and Non-tax revenue

Array ( )

Expenditure

Array ( )

Direct and indirect forms of subsidies

Array ( )

Food Fertiliser Petroleum Interest Power Investment Others
Public Debt

Array ( )

Banking, NPA and Financial Inclusion
Banks

Array ( )

Non Performing Assets (NPA)

Array ( )

Schemes & Acts related to Banks, NPA & FI

Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 71 [specifictopic_url] => Insolvency-and-Bankruptcy-Act-IBA [dropdownid] => 531 [optional] => Economics [relevance] => Prelims and Mains [star] => 5 ) )

Insolvency and Bankruptcy Act (IBA) Prelims and Mains
Financial Inclusion

Array ( )

Agriculture
Agriculture and associated topics
Crops

Array ( )

Land

Array ( )

Credit

Array ( )

Subsidies

Array ( )

Technical inputs

Array ( )

Soil

Array ( )

Seeds

Array ( )

Irrigation

Array ( )

Labor

Array ( )

Fertilisers

Array ( )

Technology and Innovation

Array ( )

Traditional Practices

Array ( )

Climate

Array ( )

Insurance

Array ( )

Allied agriculture activities

Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 53 [specifictopic_url] => Livestock-sector-in-India [dropdownid] => 524 [optional] => Agriculture,Geography [relevance] => Prelims,Mains [star] => 5 ) )

Livestock sector Prelims,Mains
Processing

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Pricing

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Marketing

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Information dissemination

Array ( )

Export promotion

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Warehousing

Array ( )

Institutions

Array ( )

Agriculture Biodiversity

Array ( )

Central and State government Policies and Schemes

Array ( )

International best practices

Array ( )

Food Security
Public Distribution System - Objectives, Functioning, Limitation, revamping

Array ( )

Issues of buffer stock

Array ( )

National Food Security Act

Array ( )

Food Processing
Food processing and related industries

Array ( )

Scope and significance

Array ( )

Location

Array ( )

Upstream and Downstream requirements

Array ( )

Supply chain management

Array ( )

Secondary Agriculture

Array ( )

Policy, Action Plan and Programs

Array ( )

Land Reforms
Land Reforms

Array ( )

Industries
Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation effects
Liberalisation

Array ( )

Privatisation

Array ( )

Globalisation

Array ( )

Industrial Policy
Evolution of Industrial Policies

Array ( )

1991 and 2011 policies

Array ( )

MSME policies and relevance

Array ( )

IIP and core sector

Array ( )

Industrial finance: problems and solutions

Array ( )

Make-in-India, Invest India, and recent updates

Array ( )

India's trade policy

Array ( )

India's IPR policy

Array ( )

SEZ and EPZ

Array ( )

WTO and associated agreements

Array ( )

Regional agreements

Array ( )

Industrial Corridors

Array ( )

Industrial Growth
Industrial Growth

Array ( )

Infrastructure
Energy
Energy and five year planning

Array ( )

Energy Security

Array ( )

Energy Policy

Array ( )

Energy related issues in India

Array ( )

Power generation, distribution, transmission

Array ( )

Coal

Array ( )

Oil and Gas

Array ( )

Hydro

Array ( )

Solar

Array ( )

Wind

Array ( )

Biomass

Array ( )

Biofuel

Array ( )

Nuclear

Array ( )

Tidal

Array ( )

Ocean Thermal Energy

Array ( )

Wave

Array ( )

Geothermal

Array ( )

Waste to energy

Array ( )

Energy related schemes and programs

Array ( )

Energy related targets

Array ( )

Ports
Major and Minor ports

Array ( )

Inland waterway ports

Array ( )

Sagarmala Project

Array ( )

Coastal economic zones

Array ( )

Aerospace and Defence
Aerospace and Defence

Array ( )

Roads
Roads

Array ( )

Railways
Railways

Array ( )

Digital and Telecomm
Digital and Telecom

Array ( )

Pipelines
Pipelines

Array ( )

Health, Education, Water and Sanitation
Health

Array ( )

Education

Array ( )

Water supply

Array ( )

Sanitation

Array ( )

Housing

Array ( )

Public transport

Array ( )

Trade
Trade
World Trade Organisation (WTO)

Array ( )

Agreement on Agriculture

Array ( )

TRIPS

Array ( )

TRIMS

Array ( )

GATS

Array ( )

WTO Dispute Settlement mechanism

Array ( )

Regional Trade Agreements

Array ( )

Trade Barriers

Array ( )

Foreign Trade Policy

Array ( )

DPIIT

Array ( )

Science and Tech
Developments, Applications and Effects
Science and Technology development and applications and effects

Array ( )

Achievements and Indigenization of technology
Achievements of our scientists

Array ( )

Indigenization of technology

Array ( )

Drones

Array ( )

IT
IT

Array ( )

Blockchain

Array ( )

Computers
Computers

Array ( )

Supercomputers

Array ( )

Quantum technology

Array ( )

Indigenisation of technology

Array ( )

DNA Data Storage

Array ( )

Space
ISRO

Array ( )

Launch Vehicles

Array ( )

Important Missions

Array ( )

Remote Sensing Satellites

Array ( )

Communication Satellites

Array ( )

Important mission worldwide

Array ( )

Telescope technology

Array ( )

Space Station

Array ( )

Space related awareness

Array ( )

Nuclear
Distribution of resources

Array ( )

Fission and Fusion reactors

Array ( )

Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)

Array ( )

Nuclear Energy production cycle

Array ( )

Threats from nuclear energy

Array ( )

Challenges to developing nuclear energy

Array ( )

Nuclear diplomacy

Array ( )

Application of nuclear technology

Array ( )

Biotechnology
Bioinformatics

Array ( )

Biotechnology

Array ( )

Bioinformatics Blue biotechnology Green biotechnology Red biotechnology White biotechnology Yellow biotechnology Gray biotechnology Brown biotechnology Dark biotechnology
Robots
Robots

Array ( )

Nanotech
Nanotech

Array ( )

Defence
Defence

Array ( )

Industrial Revolution 4.0
Artificial Intelligence

Array ( )

Neural network Deep Learning Machine Learning Natural Language processing Computer Vision Cognitive Compound
Machine Learning

Array ( )

Neural Networks

Array ( )

Deep Learning

Array ( )

Natural Language processing

Array ( )

5G

Array ( )

Internet of Things

Array ( )

3D Printing

Array ( )

Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality

Array ( )

Wearable Technology

Array ( )

Issues relating to IPR
Intellectual Property Rights

Array ( )

Patents

Array ( )

Geographical Indicators

Array ( )

Copyrights

Array ( )

Trademarks

Array ( )

Industrial Designs

Array ( )

Research and Development related issues in India

Array ( )

Institutions

Array ( )

Schemes and Policies

Array ( )

Human Resource

Array ( )

Health
Environment
Environment Conservation
Environment Conservation

Array ( )

Environment versus Development

Array ( )

Sustainable Development Goals

Array ( )

Agenda 21

Array ( )

Environment Degradation and Pollution
Pollution

Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 67 [specifictopic_url] => Water-Pollution-in-India-Critical-Analysis [dropdownid] => 450 [optional] => Environment [relevance] => [star] => 5 ) )

Air Pollution River Water Pollution Ocean water pollution Ground Water Pollution Wetland and Lake pollution Land degradation Noise pollution Radioactive/ Nuclear pollution
Climate Change

Array ( )

Definition Factors/ Causes Impacts (PESTLE) Summits + World efforts India's INDC and Climate change action plan Adaptation and Mitigation efforts Climate change contemporary topics
Various ecosystems - characteristics and threats

Array ( )

Coastal River Wetland Marine - Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal Terrestrial Cryosphere Mountain Forest Grasslands Deserts Urban
Waste Management

Array ( )

Plastic Waste Solid Waste e-Waste
Legislation

Array ( )

Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 Water Act, 1974 Forest Conservation Act, 1980 Indian Forest Act, 1927 Compensatory Afforestation Act Forest Rights Act, 2006 National Agroforestry Policy Air Act Environment Protection Act Mines and Minerals Regulation Act and Mining related laws Wetland Conservation Rules Coastal Regulation Zone Notification Islands Protection Zone Notification Biodiversity Act, 2002
Wildlife - flora and fauna

Array ( )

Tigers Elephants Snow Leopard Gangetic Dolphin Rhino Australia's wildlife Polar region Mangroves Coral Reefs Western Ghats North East Wild varieties of agriculture plants Marine ecosystem Olive Ridley Turtles Vultures Great Indian Bustard Bees, Birds and Bats
International Organisations

Array ( )

UNEP IUCN WWF GEF REDD+ Global Tiger Conservation Forum Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals CITES Stockholm, Basil, Rotterdam (BRS) conventions Hindu-Kush Himalayas ICIMOD Arctic Council NASA, NOAA UNCCD UNCBD UNFCCC IMO UNCLOS International Seabed Authority IPCC and WMO
Mining

Array ( )

Environment impacts of Energy

Array ( )

Indian Ocean environment issues

Array ( )

IOD Dead Zones Oxygen Minimum Zones El-Nino and its impact MJO Cloud
EIA
Environment Impact Assessment

Array ( )

Social Impact Assessment

Array ( )

Disaster Management
Disaster Management
General note on disasters and disaster management

Array ( )

Disaster management institutions
National, State and District Disaster Management Authority

Array ( )

Cabinet Committee on Security

Array ( )

National and State Disaster Response Forces

Array ( )

National Institute of Disaster Management

Array ( )

Disasters management guidelines
Flood

Array ( )

Drought

Array ( )

Landslide

Array ( )

Tropical Cyclones

Array ( )

Earthquake

Array ( )

Vector-borne diseases

Array ( )

Flash floods/ Urban Floods

Array ( )

Forest Fire

Array ( )

Urban Fire

Array ( )

Collapse of Building

Array ( )

Heat wave

Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 61 [specifictopic_url] => Heat-waves-in-India [dropdownid] => [optional] => Geography [relevance] => Mains [star] => 3 ) )

Mains
Cold wave

Array ( )

Chemical Disaster

Array ( )

Biological Disaster

Array ( )

Hyogo Framework and Sendai Framework
Hyogo Framework for Action

Array ( )

Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Resilience

Array ( )

New Delhi Declaration

Array ( )

PM 10 point action plan

Array ( )

Coalition of Disaster Resilient Infrastructure

Array ( )

Disaster Management Pillars
Disaster Risk

Array ( )

Disaster Vulnerability

Array ( )

Disaster Mitigation

Array ( )

Disaster Preparedness

Array ( )

Disaster response

Array ( )

Disaster recovery

Array ( )

Disaster management financing
Disaster management financing

Array ( )

Internal Security
Internal Security
Extremism

Array ( )

Naxalism

Array ( )

Regionalism

Array ( )

Communalism

Array ( )

Separatism

Array ( )

Immigrants issue in India - Nigeria, Afghan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Tibet

Array ( )

Terrorism
Terrorism

Array ( )

Organized Crime

Array ( )

Terror Financing

Array ( )

Terror recruitment and assistance

Array ( )

Terror commercialisation

Array ( )

Radicalisation

Array ( )

Counter-terror initiatives - global

Array ( )

Counter-terror initiatives - India

Array ( )

Recent terrror attacks in the world

Array ( )

North-East
Bodoland issue

Array ( )

Nagaland issue

Array ( )

Assam NRC issue

Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 72 [specifictopic_url] => National-Register-of-Citizens-NRC-Assam [dropdownid] => [optional] => [relevance] => [star] => 5 ) )

Manipur insurgency issue

Array ( )

Myanmar border issues

Array ( )

Punjabi mazhabi versus Khasi issue

Array ( )

Arunachal Pradesh indigenous people issue

Array ( )

Mizoram issue

Array ( )

Bru Refugee issue

Array ( )

Tiparaland issue

Array ( )

Darjeeling Gorkhaland issue

Array ( )

Tribal issues
Tribal movements across India

Array ( )

Jammu and Kashmir
J&K Article 370 revocation issue

Array ( )

J&K insurgency

Array ( )

J&K OGWs, their role and how to neutralise them

Array ( )

Social Media and communication network threats
Surveillance State versus Privacy debate

Array ( )

Cyber security
General note on Cyber Security

Array ( )

National efforts regarding Cyber Security

Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 68 [specifictopic_url] => NATGRID-Critical-Analysis [dropdownid] => 530 [optional] => [relevance] => [star] => 5 ) )

NATGRID
International Efforts regarding Cyber Security

Array ( )

International and National Reports

Array ( )

Data Protection

Array ( )

Security forces and Border Management
Drug smuggling, liquor smuggling, cattle smuggling, Gold smuggling and Arms smuggling menace at border locations

Array ( )

Security Forces and agencies and their mandate

Array ( )

Border Management and Security

Array ( )

Money Laundering
Black Money

Array ( )

Money Laundering mechanism

Array ( )

Shell Companies

Array ( )

National Efforts against Black Money

Array ( )

International Efforts against Black Money

Array ( )

Corruption and Black Money

Array ( )

External and Non-State Actors
General note on External and Non-state actors

Array ( )

Investment
Investment Model
Public Private Partnership

Array ( )

Investment Model

Array ( )

Disinvestment
Disinvestment

Array ( )

Foreign Investment
FDI

Array ( )

Foreign Portfolio Investment

Array ( )

External Commercial Borrowings

Array ( )

Domestic Investment
Domestic Investment

Array ( )

Investment Regulation
Investment Regulation

Array ( )

Investment Policies
Investment Policies

Array ( )

Alternative Finance Mechanism
ADR, GDR

Array ( )

Green Bonds

Array ( )

Blue Bonds

Array ( )

Crowdsourcing

Array ( )

Peer to Peer lending

Array ( )

Masala Bonds

Array ( )

Bharat Bond ETF

Array ( )

Venture Capital and Private Equity

Array ( )

Banking, NPA and Financial Inclusion
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