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upsc genral studies mains notes
PAPER SUBJECT SPECIFIC TOPIC Sub TOPIC OPTIONAL Relevance
G.S.1
Culture
Culture
India - oldest civilisation of the world
Debate regarding official language and constitutional provisions
Arts
Painting
Drawings
Sculpture
Textile craft
Papier Mache
Metal crafts
Photography
Filmmaking
Dance
Music
Drama
Puppetry
Martial Arts
Stand-up Comedy
Architecture
Architecture
Indus Valley
Rock Cut Architecture
Mauryan Architecture
Helinistic/ Greco-Bactrian/ Central Asian
Amravati school of architecture
Gupta/ Nagara style (incl. Panchayatana style)
Southern India
Islamic Architecture
Regional Architecture
Other Architecture
Norms, Values and Philosophies
Religion
Miscellaneous
Buddhism
Jainism
Sufism
Sikhism
Bhakti movement
Zoroastrianism
Others
Institutions
India Year Book
ASI
Anthropological Survey of India
CIIL, Mysuru
Sangeet Natak Akademi
Sahitya Akademi
Lalit Kala Kendra
INTACH
National Art Gallery
Others
Government Programs and Schemes
Swadesh Darshan Scheme
Paryatan Parv
Ek Bharat Shreshth Bharat
Adopt a Heritage Scheme
HRIDAY scheme
Swachh Bharat Iconic Place
Significant personalities
Significant personalities
Travellers
Chinese Travellers - Fa Hsien, Huen Tsang
Arab Travellers - Al Biruni, Al Masudi, Ibn Batuta etc.
European Travellers - Marco Polo
History
Significant events during freedom struggle
Before 1857
1857-1905
1905-1919
1919-1935
1935-1947
Significant personalities during freedom struggle
Lords/ Viceroys and important legislations and events during their tenure
Moderates
Extremists
Revolutionary Terrorists
Mahatama Gandhi
Jawahar Lal Nehru
Subhash Chandra Bose
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
B R Ambedkar
M A Jinnah
Others
Contributions from different parts of the country during freedom struggle
Peasant movements
Tribal movements
Women in freedom struggle
Youth in freedom struggle
Lawyers in freedom struggle
Businessmen in freedom struggle
Workers in freedom struggle
Modern India from mid of 18th century to today
Social and Religious Reform Movements
Indian rennaisance
Women movements
Dalit Rights movements
Historical Underpinnings of the Constitution
Judicial system since 18th century
Civil Services since 18th century
Police reforms since 18th century
Indian Economy since 18th century
Press Evolution
Education reforms since 18th century
Post-independence consolidation and reorganization
Dhar Committee, JVP Committee, Fazl Ali Committee, State Reorganisation Act
Alteration in boundaries and status of the states
Rise of opposition and regional politics
Language issue
Rise of internal security threats
Tribal society integration
World History
World History
American Revolution
French Revolution
Industrial Revolution
World War - 1
Russian Revolution
World War - 2
League of Nations and United Nations
Gulf Wars
Cold War
Cold War 2.0
Mutually Assured Destruction Doctrine
Korean War
Vietnam war
Redrawal of national boundaries
Colonization
Decolonization
Evolution of terrorism in the world
Israel-Palestine conflict
Israel-Iran conflict
Yemen crisis
Sryia crisis
Turkey-Syria issue
Qatar issue
Iraq-Iran war
Iran Revolution
Kurdistan issue
External state actors in West Asia
Lebanon crisis
Arab Spring
Arab Spring 2.0
Venezuela crisis
Bolivia crisis
Chile political crisis
Argentina issue
Brazil issues
European fascism and protectionism
European rising extremism and radicalisation
Eurozone economic crisis
Brexit
France Yellow protest
Faultlines in EU
Faultlines in NATO
Ukraine Crisis
Climate change protests
Unstable Coalition governments in Europe
USSR disintegration
Decolonisation in South Asia and South East Asia
Non-Aligned Movement
Afghanistan issue
Pakistan history
Sri Lankan political crisis
Maldives political crisis
Rohingya Muslim issue
South East Asia crisis and formation of ASEAN
Chinese history
China-Taiwan dispute
Tibetan refugee issue
Hong-Kong anti-government protests
Evolution of Russia and China relations
South China Sea dispute
Nepal political crisis
Bangladesh history (since 1947)
North Korea issue
Other Asian issues
USA political issues
Africa - Underdevelopment crisis
Africa - decolonisation
Ethnic conflicts in Africa
Significant political issues in Africa
Libya crisis
Sudan crisis
Capitalism, Communism, Socialism and other political ideologies and their forms and effects on society
Capitalism - its forms and effects on society
Communism - its forms and effects on society
Socialism - its forms and effects on society
Democracy - its forms and effects on society
Fascism - its forms and effects on society
Liberalism - its forms and effects on society
Environmentalism - its forms and effects on society
Liberalism versus National Populism
Society (Social Issues)
Salient Features of Indian Society
Salient features of South Asian society
Salient features of agricultural society
Salient features of industrial society
Salient features of tertiary society
Salient features of tribal society
Salient features of society in different parts of country
Caste system
Unity in diversity
Tolerance and love
Degree of equality (in status, in representation, in opportunities etc.)
Social Institutions/ Entities: - Family, Marriage and Kinship - Caste and Tribe - Politics - Economics and Market - Religion - Education
Degree of urbanism
Rule of law is common across all caste, religion, region, gender
Patriarchal, Patrilineal, Patrilocal systems
Salient features of modern Indian society
Cultural mosaic society - past to present
Settlement pattern
Social interactions and interdependencies
Patterns of social inequality and social exclusion (Class 12 NCERT)
Geography based societal norms and culture
Transition from 3rd to 4th stage of demographic transition model
Society and social media
Society and technology
Factors causing changes in society
Agencies of socialisation in the society (Class XI NCERT)
Social structure, stratification and processes in Indian society (Class XI NCERT)
Social Change and social order in rural and urban society (Class XI NCERT)
Environment and Society (Class XI NCERT)
Diversity of India
General note on diversity of India
Linguistic
Religious
Caste
Regional
Income group
Racial
Nation-state and state-nation debate (Class 12 NCERT)
Movements by various marginalised sections of society (role of civil society organisations)
Role of women and women organisations
Role of women - past to present
Women's movement in India - past to present
Role of women in different regions of country
Women and Population growth
Women and national freedom struggle
Role of women in post-independence era
Role of women in politics
Economic development of women - past to present
Role of women in globalisation
Role of women in social empowerment
Role of women in maintaining status quo or bringing change in the society
Role of women in poverty alleviation
Difference in role of women in rural and urban areas
Changing role of women due to globalisation or counter-globalisation
Role of women in Indian society and western society
Differences in roles of women in upper caste and lower caste
How far women movements have succeeded in case of lower caste women?
How far the movies are reflecting the changing role of women in present times?
Identify the role of women and their organisations to control crimes against women
Women empowerment and secularism
Challenges to women empowerment are common across space and time
Role of women in countering malnourishment
Population and related issues
Birth Rate
Death Rate
Population Stabilisation
Total Fertility Rate
IMR
MMR
Sex Ratio
Child Sex Ratio
Life Expectancy
Age Structure of the population
Dependency Ratio
Literacy
Rural-Urban differences
Migration
Malnutrition
Population theories - Malthus, Marx and DTM
Population and poverty relationship
Population Policy of India
Family Planning
Marginalised sections of population and their issues
Population and health issues
Poverty and Development issues
Concept of multi-dimensional poverty
Linkages of poverty and development
Poverty alleviation strategy since independence
Poverty alleviation programs
Inequality and poverty
Poverty and hunger
Aspirational Districts program
Urbanization and its issues
History of urbanisation
History of urban local bodies
Housing
Transportation and traffic congestion
Income based social stratification
Pollution
Health issues
Economic activities
Slums
Digitisation
Urban local bodies
Waste management
Migration
Crime
Urban planning
Electricity and Energy
Effects of globalization on Indian society
General note of effects of globalisation on Indian Society
Effects of globalization on South Asian society
Effects of globalization on agrarian society
Effects of globalization on industrial society
Effects of globalization on urban society
Effects of globalisation on marginalised sections of society
Social Empowerment
General note on social empowerment
Women empowerment
Youth empowerment
Child - Survival - Protection - Participation - Development
Scheduled Castes and Manual Scavengers
Scheduled Tribes, Denotified Tribes and Nomadic & Semi-nomadic tribes
Other Backward Castes/ Socially and Educationally Backward castes (OBC/ SEBC)
Old Age
Disabled or diseased
LGBTQI
Economically weaker sections
Minorities
Bonded labour
Secularism and Communalism
Secular traditions of India
Difference between Indian secularism and Western secularism
Constitutional provisions and important cases
Evolution of communalism in India
Major debates on secularism and communalism in India
Regionalism
Regionalism in Indian context
Linguistic states helped strengthen Indian Unity
Rise of regional politics in post independence era
Demand for new states and its impact
Geography
Physical Geography
Earth and Solar System
Universe and associated issues
Climatology
Geomorphology
Oceanography
Biogeography
Mapping
Human Geography
Settlements
Urbanisation and Urbanism
Population Geography
Race and Tribes - India and World
Demographic attributes
Economic Geography
Primary Activities - Agriculture
Primary Activities - Fishing
Primary Activities - Mining
Primary Activities - Forestry
World distribution of resources (including South Asia)
Industrial Corridors
Automobile Industry
Iron and Steel industry
Paper industry
IT industry
Thermal Power plants
Textile industry
Plastic industry
Fertiliser Industry
Cement industry
Petroleum refining industry
Sugar Industry
Industry revolution 4.0
Indian trade scenario
Logistics
Bank and financial services
Roads and highways
Urban mass transport
Pipeline
Railways
Waterways
Interlinking of the rivers
Airways and Airports
Ports and sea trade
Digital transport and communication
Space based transport and navigation
Tourism and other tertiary activities
Factors responsible for location of primary, secondary and tertiary sector industries
Environment Geography
Flora and Fauna Distribution
Water resources
Ice-caps
Land
Air
Geographical features and their locations
Forests
Mangroves
Coral Reefs
Fishes
Tigers
Cattles, Buffaloes and other domesticated animals
Birds, Bees, butterflies etc.
G.S.2
Polity
Constitutional Framework
Historical Underpinnings
Evolution
Features
Amendments
Significant provisions
Basic Structure
Preamble
Union and its territory (Article 1-4)
Citizenship
Fundamental Rights
Directive Principles of State Policy
Fundamental Duties
System of Government
Centre-State Relations
Inter-state relations
Emergency Provisions
Seventh Schedule
Federalism and related issues
Separation of Powers between various organs
Parliamentary System and Presidential System
Sources of law in the country
Central Government
Parliament; powers and privileges, structure, functioning, conduct of business and associated issues
President
Vice-President
Prime Minister
Central Council of Ministers
Cabinet Committees
Organisation, Structure and Functioning of the Executive
Ministries and Departments of Government
Adequate size of cabinet
State Government
State Legislature; powers and privileges, structure, functioning, conduct of business and associated issues
Governor
Chief Ministers and State Council of Ministers
Special Status of States
Local Government
Devolution of powers and finances at local level and challenges therein
Panchayati Raj
Urban local bodies
Three-tier structure
Aspirational Districts
Union Territories and Special Areas
Union Territories
Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas
Justice delivery system
Supreme Court
Judicial Review
Judicial Activism
Public Interest Litigation
High Court
Subordinate Courts
Dispute settlement mechanism and institutions
Arbitration
Conciliation
Mediation
Negotiation
Tribunals - CAT and others
Judicial Doctrines in India
All India Judicial Services
Judicial Appointments
Judicial Accountability and independence
Informal judiciary
Police
Prisons
Legal services
Constitution Posts/ Bodies - appointment, powers, functions, and responsibilities
Election Commission of India
Union Public Service Commission
State Public Service Commission
Finance Commission
GST Council
Comptroller and Auditor General
National Commission of Scheduled Castes
National Commission of Scheduled Tribes
National Commission of Backward Classes
Attorney General of India
Advocate General of the state
Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities
Non-Constitutional bodies - appointment, powers, functions, and responsibilities
General note on statutory bodies, regulatory bodies and quasi-judicial bodies
NHRC, SHRC
National Commission for Women
National Commission for Protection of Child Rights
National Commission for Minorities
Central Information Commission, State Information Commission
Central Vigilance Commission, State Vigilance Comm
CBI
Lokpal and Lokyuktas
National Investigation Agency
National Disaster Management Authority
National Law Commission
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)
National Financial Regulatory Authority (NFRA) and Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI)
University Grants Commission (UGC)
Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC)
Securities and Exchange Board of India
Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA)
IRDAI
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Developmen (NABARD)
SIDBI
Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)
National Medical Commission (NMC) and Medical Council of India (MCI)
National Highway Authority of India
Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA)
CPCB and SPCB
Bar Council of India
Registrar of Newspapers for India
Registrar of Companies
Competition Commission of India
Central Electricity Regulatory Commission
Directorate General of Hydrocarbons
Pharmacy Council of India
Atomic Energy Regulatory Authority
Central Council of Indian Medicine
National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA)
Inland Waterways Authority
Central Board of Film Certification
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)
Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)
Federation of Indian Export Organisations (FIEO)
Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI)
Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO)
Directorate General of Mines Safety
Airports Economic Regulatory Authority
Airports Authority of India
Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) and PESO
Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunals
NCLT and NCLAT
Income Tax Appellate Tribunal
Motor Vehicle Appellate Tribunal
NGT
Political Dynamics
Salient features of Representation of People's Act
Political parties
Election Commission of India
Election Season
Electorate
Election Laws
Electoral Reforms
Centre and State elections
Government formation and opposition
Election mechanism
Pressure Groups and Formal and Informal associations and their role in polity
National Integration
Other Constitutional Provisions
Cooperative societies
Official Language
Public Services
Oath
Table of precedence
Governance
Government Policies and interventions in various sectors, issues in design and implementation
General Note: - Design - Implementation - Education - Monitoring and Evaluation - Remediation
Agriculture and allied activities
Communications and Information Technology
Data led governance
Commerce
Education
Energy
Environment
Finance
Food Security
Health and Family Welfare
Food processing
Consumer Affairs
Housing
Urbanisation
Foreign policy
Industrialization
Mining
Law and Justice
Labor and Employment
Poverty eradication
Skill Development
Rural development
Local bodies
Science and Technology and Innovation
Transport
Water Resources
Welfare
Youth affairs and Sports
Governance, Transparency and Accountability
Governance
Right to Information
Official Secrets Act
Media
Whistleblower Bill
Accountability
e-Governance
Models, processes, practices, applications, limitations etc.
Digital India
Importance of data in e-governance
e-governance facilitating people participation
Citizen Charter
Citizen Charter, Transparency, accountability, institutional and other measures
Limitations and measures to improve citizen charter
Civil Services
Role of civil services in a democracy
Reform Perform Transform
NITI Aayog civil service reforms
Foundational values of civil services
Cadre based civil service organisation
Social Justice
Welfare of vulnerable sections
General note on mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies for vulnerable sections
Women - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Child - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Adolescent - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Scheduled Caste - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Scheduled Tribes - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Denotified Tribes, Nomadic Tribes, Semi-Nomadic Tribes - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Other Backward Classes - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Disabled - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Old Age - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Minorities - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
LGBTQI - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
EWS - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Drug Addict - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Unorganised Sector labor - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Migrants - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Disaster affected households - mechanisms, bodies, laws, institutions, schemes, policies
Development processes and Development Industry
General note on development processes
General note on development industry/ service sector and its role
NGO
Self Help Groups
Role of Groups and associations, Charities, Donors and Institutional and other stakeholders
Poverty and Hunger
Poverty
Malnutrition or Hidden Hunger
Relationship between poverty and hunger and their consequences
Changing trends in relationship between poverty and hunger
Poverty
Malnutrition or Hidden Hunger
Relationship between poverty and hunger and their consequences
Changing trends in relationship between poverty and hunger
Policies and schemes to counter poverty and hunger and their critical analysis
Changing trends in hunger
Important reports and studies
Hunger and Nutrition survey in India and the world
Health
Universal Health Coverage - Access, Cost, Quality
National Health Policy
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Healthcare
Health Insurance
Health human resource
Health infrastructure
Private versus Public comparison
Health Delivery systems
Traditional Health systems in India
Disease burden in India
Health and technology
low cost innovations
Health financing
Health sector regulations
Medicines/ Drugs, Vaccines, Blood etc. related issues in healthcare
Mass movement on health; people participation
Various Diseases and their notes
Education
Access, Equity, Quality, Affordability, Accountability
National Education Policy
Pre-school care and education
School education
Higher education
Vocational education
Digital education
Adult education
Value education
Public versus private
Human Resources
Development and Management of social services/ sectors - Human Resources
Human development in India
International Relations
Foreign Policy of India
Evolution of India's foreign policy - past to present
Components/ Pillars
Successes and Failures of policy
South Asia policy
Western democracies related policy
China policy
South East Asia policy
Indo-Pacific policy
Central Asia Policy
Russia policy
Africa policy
West Asia policy
Latin America policy
Indian Diaspora policy
United Nations and multilateralism policy
Regional grouping related policy
Policy on global issues - cold war, disarmament, conflicts, terrorism, climate change, south-south cooperation etc.
Neighborhood
India and its neighborhood - relations
Pakistan
Nepal
Bhutan
Sri Lanka
Maldives
Bangladesh
Myanmar
China
Afghanistan
Extended Neighborhood
Maritime Neighborhood
Agreements - Economic, Strategic, Security, Political, Social development, Cultural, Science and Technology, Environmental
India-USA
India-Russia
India-Iran
India-West Asia
India-Israel
India-Japan
India-South Korea
India-South Pacific Island Countries
India-Europe
India-France
India-Germany
India-UK
India-Australia
China with other countries
Pakistan with other countries
USA-Russia
Saudi-Iran
European Union-UK
USA-Indian Ocean Region
JCPOA
OBOR
Asia Africa Growth Corridor
Regional Comprehensive Economic Cooperation
Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP)
India-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement
India-MERCOSUR Preferential Trade Agreement
India-EU Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement
Maritime Domain Awareness Initiative
Generalised System of Preferences (GSP)
International North-South Transport Corridor
Eurasian Economic Corridor
Blue Dot Infrastructure Network - Japan, America, Australia
Global agreements or regional agreements involving India or impacting India
Indian Diaspora
International Organisations
G20
BRICS
G7
G33
BASIC
Quad
Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation
Indian Ocean Naval Symposium
BIMSTEC
SAARC
East Asia Summit
Russia-India-China
Japan-America-India
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Belt and Road Initiative Forum
Raisina Dialog
Shangri-La Dialog
Far East Summit
Arctic Dialog
India-Africa Forum Summit
FIPIC
FOCAC - China and Africa Cooperation
World Nuclear Summit
Nuclear Suppliers' Group
Australian Group
Waasenaar Agreement
Missile Technology Control Regime
World Bank
IMF
World Trade Organisation
Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
United Nations and its main organs
United Nations Funds and Programs
United Nations Specialized Agencies
United Nations Related Organisations
Other Entities of United Nations
Impact of policies of other countries on India
USA policy regarding India
Afghanistan issue
Syria issue
Protectionist and fascist policies of various countries
North Korea issue
Iran issue
Israel- Palestine issue
Venezuela issue
Sri Lanka political crisis
Maldives political crisis
USA policy
EU policy regarding NATO
EU policy on India
Japan policy in Indian Ocean
Australia policy in Indian Ocean
Russia policy
Blue Dot Infrastructure Network - Japan, America, Australia
Indo-Pacific Business Forum - J, A, A
Pivot to Central Asia policies of countries
G.S.3
Indian Economy
Indian Economy
Glossary
Indian Economy on the eve of independence
Indian Economy 1950-90
Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation
Indian Economy performance in last 5 years (Economic Surveys)
Factors in economic development
Years of slowdown in the past
Macro-economic analysis
Rural-Urban Economy
Organized and Unorganized Economy
Indian Economy - comparison with other economies
Economic inequality
Challenges to Indian Economy
Solutions for reviving growth
Monetary Policy
Capital Markets
Planning
General note on Indian planning
Five Year plans
3-tier planning architecture
Planning Commission and NITI Aayog
NITI Aayog achievements
Planning is only as effective as monitoring and evaluation
Issues related to planning in India
Resources and their mobilization
Resources - Natural, Human, Financial, Technological
Distribution of resources
Regional problems in effective mobilisation of resources
Benefit of effective resource mobilisation
Management of resources after mobilisation
Issues in identification of resources
Resource Efficiency
Growth and development
Five year plans and growth & development
Relationship between growth and development
Factors responsible to generate growth and development
Regional variations in growth and development
Issues of growth
Issues of development
Changing trends in growth
Changing trends in development
World Indices and Indian indices
Employment
General note on employment and unemployment
Organized and Unorganized labor
Formal and informal employment
Female Labour Force Participation
Labor reforms
Strategies to promote employment generation
Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it
Inclusive Growth
Critical Analysis of strategy since independence
Can strategy of inclusive growth ensure inclusiveness and sustainability together
Pillars of inclusive growth
Government Budgeting
Union Budgets
General note on Budgeting in India
Centre-State Financial relationship
Inclusive Budgeting
Deficit measuring
Tax and Non-tax revenue
Expenditure
Direct and indirect forms of subsidies
Public Debt
Agriculture
Agriculture and associated topics
Crops
Land
Credit
Subsidies
Technical inputs
Soil
Seeds
Irrigation
Labor
Fertilisers
Technology and Innovation
Traditional Practices
Climate
Insurance
Allied agriculture activities
Processing
Pricing
Marketing
Information dissemination
Export promotion
Warehousing
Institutions
Agriculture Biodiversity
Central and State government Policies and Schemes
International best practices
Food Security
Public Distribution System - Objectives, Functioning, Limitation, revamping
Issues of buffer stock
National Food Security Act
Food Processing
Food processing and related industries
Scope and significance
Location
Upstream and Downstream requirements
Supply chain management
Secondary Agriculture
Policy, Action Plan and Programs
Land Reforms
Land Reforms
Industries
Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation effects
Liberalisation
Privatisation
Globalisation
Industrial Policy
Evolution of Industrial Policies
1991 and 2011 policies
MSME policies and relevance
IIP and core sector
Industrial finance: problems and solutions
Make-in-India, Invest India, and recent updates
India's trade policy
India's IPR policy
SEZ and EPZ
WTO and associated agreements
Regional agreements
Industrial Corridors
Industrial Growth
Industrial Growth
Infrastructure
Energy
Energy and five year planning
Energy Security
Energy Policy
Energy related issues in India
Power generation, distribution, transmission
Coal
Oil and Gas
Hydro
Solar
Wind
Biomass
Biofuel
Nuclear
Tidal
Ocean Thermal Energy
Wave
Geothermal
Waste to energy
Energy related schemes and programs
Energy related targets
Ports
Major and Minor ports
Inland waterway ports
Sagarmala Project
Coastal economic zones
Aerospace and Defence
Aerospace and Defence
Roads
Roads
Railways
Railways
Digital and Telecomm
Digital and Telecom
Pipelines
Pipelines
Health, Education, Water and Sanitation
Health
Education
Water supply
Sanitation
Housing
Public transport
Trade
Trade
World Trade Organisation (WTO)
Agreement on Agriculture
TRIPS
TRIMS
GATS
WTO Dispute Settlement mechanism
Regional Trade Agreements
Trade Barriers
Foreign Trade Policy
DPIIT
Science and Tech
Developments, Applications and Effects
Science and Technology development and applications and effects
Achievements and Indigenization of technology
Achievements of our scientists
Indigenization of technology
Drones
IT
IT
Blockchain
Computers
Computers
Supercomputers
Quantum technology
Indigenisation of technology
DNA Data Storage
Space
ISRO
Launch Vehicles
Important Missions
Remote Sensing Satellites
Communication Satellites
Important mission worldwide
Telescope technology
Space Station
Space related awareness
Nuclear
Distribution of resources
Fission and Fusion reactors
Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)
Nuclear Energy production cycle
Threats from nuclear energy
Challenges to developing nuclear energy
Nuclear diplomacy
Application of nuclear technology
Biotechnology
Bioinformatics
Biotechnology
Robots
Robots
Nanotech
Nanotech
Defence
Defence
Industrial Revolution 4.0
Artificial Intelligence
Machine Learning
Neural Networks
Deep Learning
Natural Language processing
5G
Internet of Things
3D Printing
Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality
Wearable Technology
Issues relating to IPR
Intellectual Property Rights
Patents
Geographical Indicators
Copyrights
Trademarks
Industrial Designs
Research and Development related issues in India
Institutions
Schemes and Policies
Human Resource
Environment
Environment Conservation
Environment Conservation
Environment versus Development
Sustainable Development Goals
Agenda 21
Environment Degradation and Pollution
Pollution
Climate Change
Various ecosystems - characteristics and threats
Waste Management
Legislation
Wildlife - flora and fauna
International Organisations
Mining
Environment impacts of Energy
Indian Ocean environment issues
EIA
Environment Impact Assessment
Social Impact Assessment
Disaster Management
Disaster Management
General note on disasters and disaster management
Disaster management institutions
National, State and District Disaster Management Authority
Cabinet Committee on Security
National and State Disaster Response Forces
National Institute of Disaster Management
Disasters management guidelines
Flood
Drought
Landslide
Tropical Cyclones
Earthquake
Vector-borne diseases
Flash floods/ Urban Floods
Forest Fire
Urban Fire
Collapse of Building
Heat wave
Cold wave
Chemical Disaster
Biological Disaster
Hyogo Framework and Sendai Framework
Hyogo Framework for Action
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Resilience
New Delhi Declaration
PM 10 point action plan
Coalition of Disaster Resilient Infrastructure
Disaster Management Pillars
Disaster Risk
Disaster Vulnerability
Disaster Mitigation
Disaster Preparedness
Disaster response
Disaster recovery
Disaster management financing
Disaster management financing
Internal Security
Internal Security
Extremism
Naxalism
Regionalism
Communalism
Separatism
Immigrants issue in India - Nigeria, Afghan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Tibet
Terrorism
Terrorism
Organized Crime
Terror Financing
Terror recruitment and assistance
Terror commercialisation
Radicalisation
Counter-terror initiatives - global
Counter-terror initiatives - India
Recent terrror attacks in the world
North-East
Bodoland issue
Nagaland issue
Assam NRC issue
Manipur insurgency issue
Myanmar border issues
Punjabi mazhabi versus Khasi issue
Arunachal Pradesh indigenous people issue
Mizoram issue
Bru Refugee issue
Tiparaland issue
Darjeeling Gorkhaland issue
Tribal issues
Tribal movements across India
Jammu and Kashmir
J&K Article 370 revocation issue
J&K insurgency
J&K OGWs, their role and how to neutralise them
Social Media and communication network threats
Surveillance State versus Privacy debate
Cyber security
General note on Cyber Security
National efforts regarding Cyber Security
International Efforts regarding Cyber Security
International and National Reports
Data Protection
Security forces and Border Management
Drug smuggling, liquor smuggling, cattle smuggling, Gold smuggling and Arms smuggling menace at border locations
Security Forces and agencies and their mandate
Border Management and Security
Money Laundering
Black Money
Money Laundering mechanism
Shell Companies
National Efforts against Black Money
International Efforts against Black Money
Corruption and Black Money
External and Non-State Actors
General note on External and Non-state actors
Investment
Investment Model
Public Private Partnership
Investment Model
Disinvestment
Disinvestment
Foreign Investment
FDI
Foreign Portfolio Investment
External Commercial Borrowings
Domestic Investment
Domestic Investment
Investment Regulation
Investment Regulation
Investment Policies
Investment Policies
Alternative Finance Mechanism
ADR, GDR
Green Bonds
Blue Bonds
Crowdsourcing
Peer to Peer lending
Masala Bonds
Bharat Bond ETF
Venture Capital and Private Equity
G.S.4
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