UPSC Courses

DNA banner


Monthly DNA

11 Aug, 2022

49 Min Read


GS-I : Social issues Women


“Performance of Women in Parliament” A Quantitative Study of Questions by Women Members in Lok Sabha (1999-2019) is a recent study that was published.

The author of this article is Sadia Hussain


Through a quantitative examination of the inquiries made by female lawmakers on the floor, the study highlights the performance of women in the Lok Sabha.

It asserts that they only serve as flimsy forms of representation in political arenas.

Access to power:

  • Over the past 20 years, India has not seen a single women's movement that questioned gender and patriarchal conventions.
  • To gain power, women have had to employ alternative strategies.
  • Women's political participation has benefited from their income and education.

Political awareness:

  • Studies indicate that more women have begun to form economic groupings, and their increased financial freedom has encouraged them to become more politically engaged.
  • The decreased gap in voter turnout between men and women is a positive sign toward gender inclusivity in the political sphere.

Comparative advantage: Women in politics

  • The general election of 2019 marked a turning point for women in politics.
  • For the first time since independence, when there were only 22 women in the 543-member Lok Sabha, 78 women were elected to the lower house of Parliament.
  • However, the author argues that this figure still does not accurately reflect the proportion of women in the nation.
  • Powerful women's performances during Question Time are noteworthy because it is a time when lawmakers can act without interference from their parties.
  • Study detractors assert that female lawmakers behave like "gungi gudiyas" or mute dolls during question periods in parliament.


  • Although males participated in more debates and asked more questions, women have significantly increased their question-asking.

Evaluating the member questions side by side

  • Contrary to popular assumption, women politicians were more interested in the welfare of their families, their own health, their homes, their finances, their industries, and the railroads than in women's issues.
  • Male legislators were more likely than female peers to ask inquiries about issues affecting women.


  • Although women are supposed to offer a feminine quality to public politics, by simply acting like men, they are shattering stereotypes.


Politics as a male-dominated profession:

  • Women are frequently prevented from pursuing careers in politics on the argument that they are not 'feminine' enough.
  • Elections were frequently forced to field female candidates as "namesakes" for their husbands.

Infrastructure issues:

  • Young women encounter significant infrastructure issues when they want to enter politics.
  • This includes a lack of sanitary facilities and secure lodging while conducting fieldwork.
  • One of the biggest reasons women avoid running for office is the sexism and harassment they experience during campaigns.
  • Lack of safety is the additional factor stated.

The sexual division of labour:

  • A system in which all domestic work is either organized by or performed by the women of the household is known as the "sexual division of labour."
  • It implies that women devote far more time to caring for the home and children than do males.

Government initiative

The 2008 Women's Reservation Act (108th Amendment)

  • The proposed law will allocate 33% of the Lok Sabha's seats and all state legislative bodies to women.
  • In May 2008, the Rajya Sabha received the bill, which was then sent to a standing committee. It was approved by the House in 2010 and then forwarded to the Lok Sabha. The Bill, however, expired with the 15th Lok Sabha.

Gender-neutral terminology and practices:

  • The Rules of Procedure of the Lok Sabha were completely gender neutralized in 2014, thanks to the guidance of the Lok Sabha's then-President.

  • Since then, every Lok Sabha Committee Head has been referred to in all papers as a Chairperson rather than a Chairman.
  • This initiative is proof that amending legal documents to make them inclusive for all genders is an attainable goal if there is a will.
  • India is a signatory to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
  • States are required under the convention to take the necessary steps to end discrimination against women in politics and public life, and in particular, to make sure that women are equally eligible to run for office in all public bodies.
  • They are entitled to take part in shaping how government policy is implemented.

Convention on Civil and Political Rights:

  • India is a signatory state to Article 25 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which is enforceable.
  • It states that "every citizen shall have the right and opportunity to vote and to be chosen at true periodic elections, without any of the distinctions mentioned in article 2 and without unjustifiable limits."

Way forward

  • The underrepresentation of women is merely a surface issue.
  • The issue of structural inequality, where women are marginalized on various levels, is what lies beneath.
  • The rise in political involvement is encouraging gender equality and inclusion in politics.
  • However, there is still a long way to go because of the socioeconomic and cultural factors that continue to socialize women to dislike politics and prevent them from pursuing it as a career.

Review on Political Empowerment in India: “2022 Global Gender Gap Index “

The WEF's Global Gender Gap Index measures the progression of gender parity across four important parameters, including:

  • Economic Participation and Opportunity,
  • Educational Attainment,
  • Health and Survival, and
  • Political Empowerment.

The Global Gender Gap Index's subindex "Political Empowerment" takes into account statistics like the proportion of women in parliament and ministerial positions, among others.

  • India will be ranked highest in this sub-index in 2022 out of all the sub-indices (48th out of 146).
  • India's rating on this metric has also declined since the previous year.
  • The bright side is that despite the drop, India still scored higher than the average score for this area globally.

Other nation performance:

  • Some of the top-scoring nations in this area have significantly better ratings.
  • For instance, Bangladesh is ranked ninth and Iceland is ranked first.

Also, Read - Digital Currency

Source: The Hindu


GS-II : Indian Polity Devolution of powers and Finances up to Local level


Gujarati political parties are attempting to win over tribal voters by promising to adhere closely to the 1996 Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act.

The State PESA Rules were made applicable to 4,503-Gram Sabhas under 2,584 village panchayats in 50 tribal talukas in eight districts of Gujarat by notification of the rules in January 2017.

The Act, however, has not been strictly adhered to.

The PESA law has been so far enacted in six states (Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Maharashtra), and Chhattisgarh would become the seventh state if the rules were to be implemented.

PESA & tribal population in Gujarat

  • In January 2017, Gujarat announced the State PESA rules.
  • 8.1% of the ST population is in Gujarat, one of the 10 states with Schedule Areas.
  • The eastern districts, close to the borders of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra, are where the tribal people are concentrated.
  • Gujarat is home to 11 significant tribes, with the Bhil making up almost 48% of the state's total tribal population.

About Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas Act, 1996


The 1992 Indian Constitutional Amendments 73 and 74 extended the three-tier Panchayati Raj system of government to the nation's rural and urban areas.

It was enacted in April 1993.

  • Scheduled areas, which are primarily populated by tribal members, were spared from the new revisions.
  • There was a significant desire for strengthening local government in the scheduled region as well, given the low human development statistics.
  • As a result, in 1996, Parliament passed a special piece of law known as the Panchayat (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act (PESA).
  • It becomes effective on December 24, 1996.


To apply, with some changes, to the Scheduled Areas the provisions of Part IX of the Constitution relating to Panchayats.

  • To grant the majority of tribe members self-rule.
  • To establish Gram Sabha as the focal point of all activities and to implement participatory democracy in village governance.
  • To develop a proper administrative structure that adheres to customary procedures.
  • To protect and uphold the tribal groups' traditions and customs.


  • It now applies to the Fifth Schedule areas, which deal with the management of the districts where tribal communities predominate.
  • Ten states in the union have it in effect.
  • PESA Rules have been notified by six States: Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Telangana.
  • The other four States—Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Odisha—should also develop PESA Rules and begin putting them into effect as soon as possible.

Under the PESA Act, the Gram Sabhas were given broad authority to: enforce prohibition; control or impose restrictions on the sale and use of any intoxicant.

  • possession of small-scale forest products.
  • prevent the alienation of land in the Scheduled Areas and take the necessary steps to restore any Scheduled Tribe territory that has been illegally alienated.
  • Manage the markets in the villages, whatever they are named.
  • Control the lending of money to the Scheduled Tribes.
  • In all spheres of society, exert control over institutions and officials.
  • control over local plans, including tribal sub-plans, and the resources used to support such plans.

Significance of Implementing the Act

Democratic decentralization: PESA gives Gram Sabhas significant authority over all social sectors and the ability to approve development plans. This involves control over:

  • Resources over jal, jangal, zameen (water, forest, and land)
  • Minor forest produce
  • Human resources: Processes and personnel who implement policies
  • Managing local markets
  • Preventing land alienation
  • Regulating intoxicants among other things

Identity Preservation: The gram sabhas have authority over tribal affairs, the upkeep of cultural traditions and identity, and the management of natural resources in a village's vicinity.

Conflict Resolution: The PESA Act thus enables gram sabhas to maintain a safety net over their rights and surroundings against external or internal conflicts.

Public Watchdog: Within the boundaries of their villages, the gram sabha would have the authority to regulate and forbid the production, distribution, sale, and consumption of intoxicants.

Gandhian Philosophy: The Act is based on the Gandhian idea of Gram Swaraj, which is embodied in Article 40 of the Constitution (which organizes local panchayats) and only came to life with the passage of PESA.

Past injustice: Its provisions gave the impression that a saviour had emerged, erasing the historical injustice done to the tribal people and restoring their honour and self-government customs.


State implementation and performance:

  • To date, 40% of States have not created the essential rules for PESA, highlighting the state government’s lack of interest in the law.
  • Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Odisha are the four states that have not yet established the regulations for the act's implementation.
  • The Panchayat Raj Act has not yet been modified in any state as needed under PESA.
  • Even the states where the regulations were created did a poor job of guaranteeing their application.


  • The state legislatures have the discretion to choose the Gram Sabhas' powers and functions, even though the Gram Sabhas' constitution is required in all states, many states have not devolved necessary power to the Gram Sabha.
  • As a result, several states have created this body's powers and functions in various ways.
  • In flagrant violation of PESA, 121 villages in Gujarat were notified of the project and their villages were cleared to build the Statue of Unity.
  • Another instance was when the Pathalgadi movement, in which Adivasis constructed stone slabs to mark the boundaries of their communities, was criminalized.

Conflicting with other laws:

  • After establishing the PESA, the Union Government introduced several additional laws and incorporated several PESA provisions into these laws, undermining the relevance and intent of the PESA.
  • For instance, Gram Sabhas do have a role in the Land Acquisition Act of 2013 but mere consultation provisions limit its power.
  • Similar PESA protections are found in the Forest Right Act of 2006, and people now look to these laws to defend their rights and resources.

Overriding laws:

  • There has been a drive for corporate infiltration and resource control, making it simpler to act without the gram sabha's assent.

Way forward

For state governments: The Center and states' lack of commitment to gram sabhas' strengthening is demonstrated by the Act's violations and the weakening of the Act.

Laws governing the land acquisition, excise, forest production, mining and minerals, Agri produce market, and money lending must be changed for state governments to comply with PESA.

Civil society: Since they are more familiar with the realities and problems that tribal people confront on the ground, it is important to include civil society and NGOs working well in the tribal community to facilitate better PESA implementation.

In theory, PESA is an excellent piece of legislation, but its effectiveness depends on how seriously and effectively it is put into practice.

Also, Read - India and Bangladesh Relationship

Source: The Indian Express

Him Drone-a-thon Program

GS-III : S&T Indigenization of Technology

Him Drone-a-thon Program

The "Him Drone-a-thon" campaign has been started by the Indian Army in association with the Drone Federation of India.


  • The program's goal is to stimulate the development of ground-breaking drone capabilities for fulfilling the needs of frontline troops by providing specific possibilities to the Indian drone ecosystem.
  • The "Him Drone-a-thon" program is an ongoing connection between all stakeholders in India, including business, academia, software developers, and manufacturers of drone products.


  • According to the Indian Army, this effort supports Make in India's defence manufacturing goals.
  • Based on the idea that "good available locally" is preferable to "best available worldwide," the Indian Army supports the domestic drone ecosystem.
  • The local industry has the necessary knowledge to create items in this subject that are of the highest quality.
  • To promote domestic drone production, India has mainly banned the import of drones and exempted the import of drone parts. Its purpose is to encourage local drone producers and increase investment.

Also, Read - Gold Exchange Traded Funds

India’s drone arsenal:

  • Heron [ISRAEL]
  • Predator [USA]
  • Sea Guardian [USA]
  • Fire-Fly ‘loitering munition’ [ISRAEL]
  • Harpy and Harop loitering munition [ISRAEL]
  • Rustom – 2 [INDIA]
  • CATS Warrior [INDIA]

Source: PIB

Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV)

GS-III : S&T Space mission

Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV)

  • The Earth observation satellite EOS-02 and a student satellite called AzaadiSAT were carried on the inaugural flight of the Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) that the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) recently launched.
  • However, because the satellites were already separated from the launch vehicle, the mission failed to deploy them in the necessary orbits.

Image Source - Iasgyaan

What is a Small Satellite Launch Vehicle?

  • A three-stage launch vehicle called the Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) is designed with three solid propulsion stages and a terminal stage called the Velocity Trimming Module (VTM) that uses liquid propulsion.
  • The SSLV has a 2 m diameter, is 34 m long, and weighs about 120 tonnes when it lifts off.
  • From Satish Dhawan Space Center, SSLV is capable of launching 500kg satellites into 500km-planar orbit (SDSC).

Key Features:

  • Low cost,
  • The low turn-around time,
  • Flexibility in accommodating multiple satellites,
  • Launch demand feasibility,
  • Minimal launch infrastructure requirements, etc


  • A small satellite launch vehicle (SSLV) designed by ISRO allows for the "launch-on-demand" launch of satellites weighing up to 500 kg into low Earth orbit.
  • Mini, Micro, or Nanosatellites (10 to 500 kg mass) can be launched by SSLV into a 500 km planar orbit.


The Age of Small Satellites:

  • Previously, larger satellite payloads were prioritized, but as the industry evolved, a variety of stakeholders, including businesses, governments, colleges, and laboratories, started launching satellites. They are all primarily classified as tiny satellites.

The Rise in Demand:

  • Over the past eight to ten years, there has been a sharp rise in the demand for small satellite launches as a result of the expanding demand for space-based data, communication, surveillance, and commerce.
  • Saves money: Satellite producers and operators do not have the luxury of booking months in advance or incurring astronomical travel costs.
  • As a result, organizations are building satellite constellations in orbit.
  • One Web and SpaceX's Starlink are two initiatives building a constellation of several satellites.


  • Since the majority of the demand comes from businesses launching satellites for commercial purposes, there is now a business opportunity for space organizations like ISRO to capitalize on the sector's potential due to the rise in demand for rocket launches.

What was the Issue?

  • The velocity trimming module (VTM), the SSLV's terminal stage, seemed to be the source of the issue.
  • At 653 seconds after launch, the VTM was scheduled to have burned for 20 seconds in accordance with the launch profile.
  • It only burned for 0.1 seconds though, depriving the rocket of the necessary height boost.
  • After the VTM burnt, the two satellites disengaged from the vehicle. A sensor fault caused the satellites to be placed in an elliptical orbit as opposed to a circular orbit.
  • According to ISRO, both satellites were successfully injected, and all steps ran smoothly. However, the orbit obtained was less than anticipated, making it unstable.

What is the SSLV-D1/EOS-02 Mission?

  • With the ability to launch satellites into Low Earth Orbit, it was designed to capture a larger share of the market for small launch vehicles.
  • The rocket was transporting the two satellites.
  • The primary EOS-2 Earth-observing spacecraft, called EOS-02, was created and launched by ISRO.
  • Advanced optical remote sensing with the great spatial resolution is available on this Microsat class satellite.
  • The second student satellite for AzaadiSAT is an 8U Cubesat that weighs about 8 kg.
  • It conducts Femto experiments and carries 75 distinct payloads, each weighing about 50 grams.
  • It carried out minute tests that would have determined the amount of ionizing radiation in its orbit, as well as a transponder that operated on the ham radio frequency to make it accessible to amateur users.
  • These payloads were constructed with assistance from female students from remote areas of the nation.
  • Does the "Space Kidz India" student team integrate the payloads?

What is the Difference between Circular and Elliptical Orbits?

Elliptical Orbits:

  • Typically, spacecraft and satellites are placed in elliptical orbits only briefly.
  • Then, either they are propelled higher into circular orbits or the acceleration is increased until the trajectory shifts from an ellipse to a hyperbola, allowing the spaceship to escape the gravity of the Earth and travel farther into space, such as to the Moon or Mars, or farther still.

Circular Orbits:

  • satellites that circle the Earth are typically put into circular orbits.
  • One argument is that it is simpler if the satellite has a set distance from the Earth if it is used to image the planet.
  • Keeping the cameras focused can be challenging if the distance is constantly shifting, as it would be in an elliptical orbit.

Also, Read - Novel Langya Henipavirus

Source: The Economic Times

Novel Langya Henipavirus

GS-III : S&T Health

Novel Langya Henipavirus

  • China's Shandong and Henan provinces have both reported cases of a novel Langya henipavirus (LayV).
  • The zoonotic virus has been identified in 35 people so far, marking the first instances of human-to-animal transmission.

What is the Langya virus?

  • Henipaviruses, a new zoonotic virus is categorized as pathogens at biosafety level 4 (BSL4).
  • They can cause serious sickness in both humans and animals, and there are currently no approved medications or vaccines designed specifically for humans.
  • A "phylogenetically different Henipavirus" is the recently found virus.
  • The Paramyxoviridae family of viruses includes the genus Henipavirus, which includes the viruses Nipah and Hendra.
  • A family of single-stranded RNA viruses called Paramyxoviridae is responsible for a variety of viral illnesses.
  • Prior to this, the genus Henipavirus has been divided into Hendra, Nipah, Cedar, Mojiang, and the Ghanaian bat virus.
  • It is unknown whether the Mojiang virus, Ghanaian bat virus or Cedar virus infect people.
  • Hendra and Nipah, however, infect people and have the potential to be lethal.?


  • In eastern China, surveillance testing on patients with fever and a recent history of animal exposure led to the discovery of Langya.
  • It was found in the throat swab sample of one of those patients and isolated.
  • The disease might have been spread by shrews, tiny insectivorous mammals that resemble mice


The study's authors have emphasized that their sample size is insufficient to determine human-to-human transmission

Also, Read - Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV)

Source: The Indian Express

Gold Exchange Traded Funds UPSC

GS-III : Economic Issues Stock market

Gold Exchange Traded Funds

As part of their portfolio rebalancing strategy, investors pulled money out of gold Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) in July 2022, resulting in a net outflow of Rs 457 crore.

Image Source - Finology

Comparatively, in June 2022 there had been a net inflow of Rs 135 crore.

About Gold Exchange Traded Funds

  • Gold ETFs are passive investment products that are based on gold prices and invest in gold bullion with the goal of tracking the domestic physical gold price.
  • Gold ETFs are securities that track actual gold, which may be in the form of paper or in a dematerialized form.
  • One gram of actual, ultra-high purity gold serves as the backing for each unit of the gold ETF.
  • They mix the simplicity of gold investments with the flexibility of stock investing.


  • The holdings of an ETF are completely transparent.
  • Compared to investments in real gold, gold ETFs have significantly lower costs.
  • ETFs are not subject to a wealth tax, a securities transaction tax, a VAT, or a sales tax.
  • Since ETFs are safe and secure as units stored in the holder's Demat Account, there is no need to worry about theft.

Reasons for the Outflow

  • Investors anticipate that a rising interest rate cycle will cause gold prices to decline.
  • The net inflows into gold ETFs were impacted by the decline in the price of gold.
  • Another element that has probably affected the dynamics of gold demand and supply is the depreciating rupee.
  • It has also been noticed internationally, with gold ETFs reporting sizeable outflows as a result of falling gold prices.

Exchange Traded Fund

  • An exchange-traded fund (ETF) is a collection of securities that trade like stocks on an exchange.
  • ETFs represent an Index's constituent parts, such as the BSE Sensex. The Net Asset Value (NAV) of the underlying stocks (such as shares) that it represents determines its trading value.
  • ETF share prices change during the day due to buying and selling. Unlike mutual funds, which only trade once a day after the market closes, this is different.
  • An ETF may own hundreds or thousands of equities across a range of industries, or it may be confined to a single sector or business.
  • Government bonds, corporate bonds, state and local bonds, and other types of bonds—referred to as municipal bonds—can all be included in bond ETFs.

(A bond is a financial product that symbolizes a loan from an investor to a borrower (typically corporate or governmental).

  • ETFs, provide investors with a diversified investment portfolio in addition to being cost-effective.

Also, Read - Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV)

Source: The Business Standard

Other Related News

10 August,2022
Food Processing Sector

Food Processing Sector The government's recent efforts to help the food processing sector were recently detailed in a written response to the Rajya Sabha Minister of State (Food Processing Industries). Present status of the food sector in India A type of manufacturing called food pr

India’s Tourism industry

India’s Tourism industry In 2024, India's outbound tourism will exceed USD 42 billion, according to a report recently published under the title "Outbound Travel and Tourism - An Opportunity Untapped.", released by Nangia Andersen LLP in association with FICCI. Image Sou

Palestine - Israel Ceasefire

Palestine - Israel Ceasefire Recently, there was a ceasefire between Israel and Palestine following three days of fighting that claimed the lives of hundreds of people in both nations. Tensions between Palestinians and Israeli police erupted at Jerusalem's al-Aqsa Mosque earlier this year

START Treaty Upsc

New START Treaty Recently, due to western sanctions, Russia halted inspections under the new START treaty. About New START Treaty The New START treaty, signed in 2010 by President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, limits each country to no more than 1,550 deployed nucle

Soil Mapping in agriculture

Soil Mapping In order to use fertilisers more effectively, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recently launched a project to digitally map soil nutrients in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and central America. Additionally, it will arrange and enhance current soil maps. About soil mapping


TEJAS JET FOR DELIVERY Malaysia has been promised 18 Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) "Tejas" from the Indian government. The single-engine jet also piqued the interest of Argentina, Australia, Egypt, the United States, Indonesia, and the Philippines. For 83 of the locally made Tejas


ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EMISSION The Minister of State for Communications recently claimed that India's high levels of electromagnetic fields have no effect on the environment in a written response to a Rajya Sabha inquiry. What are Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Emissions? Invisible

09 August,2022
Significance OF Tribes

Significance OF Tribes Every year on August 9th, there is a celebration known as World Tribal Day or International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples. Its objectives are to advance and defend the rights of all indigenous peoples worldwide and to recognize their contributions to global i

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Nallathamby Kalaiselvi, a senior electrochemical scientist, has been named the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research's first female Director General. Her appointment is for a period of two years with effect from the date of assumptio

Indian Virtual Herbarium

Indian Virtual Herbarium Indian Virtual Herbarium is attracting a lot of attention and is proving to be an intriguing project. About Indian virtual herbarium It is a database of dried plants. Indian Virtual Herbarium is an interesting collection of plants and preserved parts

NITI Aayog’s Governing Council Meeting

NITI Aayog’s Governing Council Meeting The seventh Governing Council meeting of NITI Aayog, which was presided over by the Honorable Prime Minister, just ended in New Delhi. Highlight The major issues were discussed by the Governing Council: Achieving self-sufficiency in pu

Rock Agama

Rock Agama Researchers from the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) conducted a survey to determine the precise locations of the rock agama in and around Bengaluru. About rock agama It is a particular kind of garden lizard that is widely distributed in southern India. It is a big an

Great Barrier Reef’s Recovery and Vulnerability

Great Barrier Reef’s Recovery and Vulnerability An annual long-term monitoring report on the Great Barrier Reef's recovery and susceptibility to climate threats was just made public by the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS). In-water and airborne methods are used to survey


Search By Date

Post Feed
Newsletter Subscription
SMS Alerts