UPSC Courses

Agriculture - Sanjeevani PT GS

Agriculture Sector in India

Agriculture and Agriculture marketing is a State subject. 70% of India's rural households depend on agriculture of which 82% are SF and MFs. Agriculture and allied employs 54.6% workforce

Continental Drift Sea floor spreading Plate Tectonics Theory

Various Stages of Continental Drift Theory

The first stage occurred during the Carboniferous period, when Pangea, a supercontinent, was encircled by Panthalassa, a mega-ocean

Applied Geomorphology

Two Main Lines of Geomorphology Application

The application of geomorphology, according to Charley, Schumn, and Sugden, may be considered along two lines:

Davis and Penck`s Model

Geomorphic Cycles and Landscape Development

Geomorphic cycle also called a geographic cycle, or cycle of erosion, theory of the evolution of landforms

Channel Morphology

Channel Morphology

Channel morphology is also called river channel morphology (or river morphology), it is a complete study of the channel from geography aspect to channel fluids dynamics aspect.

Denudation Chronology


denudation involves the processes that cause the wearing away of Earth’s surface by moving water, ice, wind, and waves. This leads to a reduction in elevation and in relief of landforms and of landscapes.

Erosional Surfaces


The concept of a peneplain (the word meaning ―almost a plain) emerged from W.M. Davis‘cyclic view of landscape evolution.

Geomorphology Summary

Definitions of Geography (Use this in Introduction)

Many famous geographers and nongeographers have attempted to define the discipline in a few short words.

Geological Time Scale

Paleozoic Era (Ancient Life)

The Cambrian period is the 1 st period of the Paleozoic Era.

Geomagnetism & Paleomagnetism

Magnetic Poles & Geomagnetic Poles

A magnet’s North pole is thought of as the pole that is attracted by the Earth’s North Magnetic Pole when the magnet is suspended so it can turn freely

Geosyncline Theory

Concept of Geosyncline theory and its Development

The concept of geosynclines was forwarded by Hall and Dana and elaborated by Haug.

Origin of Earth Thories

Gaseous hypothesis of Kant

Nebula – It is a primordial (primitive) amorphous (without shape) mass of cloud of gas and dust.


Development of the Isostasy Concept

The concept of isostasy came in the mind of geologists but the concept grew out of the attraction of giant mountainous masses.

Slope elements and Slope developments & Theories

Historical Approach:

This approach emphasizes the historical evolution of slopes right from their origin to the present form. It, however, suffers from the inherent problem of correct reconstruction of the past forms of the slope.

Theories of Mountain Building

Theories of Mountain Building

A mountain can be defined as an area of land that rises abruptly from the surrounding region and higher than the hill.



Volcanism is the eruption of molten rock from inside the Earth to the surface. Volcanism occurs because of Earth’s internal heat, and is associated with tectonic processes and a part of the rock cycle.

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