The Government of India formally established the Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D) in August 1970 via a Resolution, under the Ministry of Home Affairs giving a new orientation to then existing Police Research and Advisory Council (1966) for the following reasons and with the primary objective of modernization of police force:
To take a direct and active interest in the issues
To promote a speedy and systematic study of the police problems,
To apply science and technology in the methods and techniques used by police.
In addition and as a secondary, the Resolution mandated an advisory role also for the Bureau.
The Bureau was established with the following two divisions initially with a well laid out charter of duties
Research, Statistics and Publication
Training is a vital and growing requirement to improve the competency of police forces in the country.
The Gore-Committee (1971) set up by the Government of India studied the training aspects of police and gave several recommendations. The government of India in accepting its recommendations created a Training Division (1973) in addition to the two divisions already existing to function under the Bureau.
The forensic science services uncompromising & Geese under the Development Division grew over a period and a separate Directorate of Forensic Sciences under the Bureau of Police Research and Development came into existence in 1983.
Further in 1995 Government of India decided to entrust issues relating to Correctional Administration Work to the BPR&D so that problems relating to prisons and implementation of deemed prison reforms can be taken up by the Bureau in a cohesive manner. This set-up is operating out of the existing manpower resources.
During the year 2008, the Government of India further decided to create National Police Mission under the administrative control of BPR&D to transform the police forces in the country into an effective instrument for the maintenance of internal security and facing the challenges in future, by equipping them with the necessary material, intellectual and organizational resources.
Thereby Bureau of Police Research and Development has to ensure the implementation of prison reformsas well.
In August 2020, it observed its 50th foundation day.
It has been publishing the data on police organisations since 1986.
Bureau of Police Research and Development Divisions – Roles and Responsibilities
As discussed above, there are 4 divisions of BPRD
1) Research Division
Analysis and study of general causes of crime; preventive measures; methods of improvising the investigation; administrative structure; Juvenile delinquency, etc.
The assistance of Police Research programmes in States and participation in social defence and crime prevention programmes
2) Development Division
Take a regular assessment of the equipment used by the police forces in India and ensure that new and modified pieces of equipment are provided in the fields of Arms and Ammunition, Riot Control Equipment, Traffic Control Equipment, Police Transport and other scientific aids for investigation
Providing access to computer technology in various fields of the police force
3) Administrative Division
Managing the matters related to the police workforce, their units and headquarters
Maintaining all accounts and budgets
Working for the welfare of the staff of the Bureau of Police Research and Development
4) Training Division
Evaluate the training programmes conducted for the police force
Assess that the training is suitable as per the social state of the country and the force is well prepared for every circumstance
To liaise with the Directorate of Training of the Department of Personnel in relation inter-alia to training aids projects and fellowships under the UNDP, UNESCO & Colombo Plan etc.
To create and maintain a circulating library of films for the use of various police training institutions
Supervising the three central detective training schools, situated at Chandigarh, Kolkata and Hyderabad
Data on Police Organisations by BPRD
Expenditure: The government has spent Rs. 1,566.85 crore in 2019-20 for expenditure and police training.
Vacancy: Over 5.31 lakh posts in police forces of different states and 1.27 lakh posts in Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) are lying vacant. The figures include civil police, district armed police, special armed police and India Reserve Battalions.
Sanctioned Population Per Police Person (PPP) is 511.81.
Sanctioned Police Population Ratio (PPR) is 195.39.
It is the number of police personnel per one lakh of the population has declined from 198 in 2018.
The UN-mandated police-population ratio is over 220.
Sanctioned Police Area Ratio (PAR) per 100 sq km is 79.80.
Representation of SC, ST, OBC in Police Forces
It highlights that Backward Classes, Dalits and Tribals constitute almost 67% of India’s population, but their representation in police forces in the country is only at 51%.
14% of all positions in police forces across the country were represented by Dalits at the end of 2019. According to Census 2011, Dalits make up 16.6% of India’s population.
OBCs fare the worst on the representation front as, despite their 41% share in the population, they constitute only 25% of the police forces.
The goal of proportionate representation has remained unfulfilled despite all state governments providing reservations to these categories.
Only STs have better representation in Police forces. They form 8.6% of the population and have 12% representation in the police forces, placing them in a comparatively better position.
Representation of Women in Police Forces
Women are highly under-represented with a 10% share in the actual strength of the police in the country, even though their share in population is 48%.
However, their situation has improved considerably over the past years as the actual strength of women in police forces has almost doubled since 2014.
Women population per woman police ratio stands at 3,026 nationally which is very low.
Poor representation of women in the police is posing serious challenges in dealing with crimes against women and women criminals.
Other Related Topics for UPSC Mains 2021
For Under-reporting of crimes in India, Problems of police forces and Way Forward: click here
Read about different Committees on Police Reforms: Click here
For news on the Analysis of the appointment of Police chief: click here
Critically analyse the role of Bureau of Police Research & Development (BPR&D) in India. How it can help in the Police reforms of the country?
Bureau of Police Research and Organization comes under which Ministry?
a) Ministry of Home Affairs
c) Prime Minister's Office
d) None of the above