UPSC Courses


Disaster and Disaster management

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Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund (PMNRF)

Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund (PMNRF) PMNRF was instituted in 1948 by Jawaharlal Nehru to assist displaced persons from Pakistan. The fund is used to tackle natural calamities like floods, cyclones and earthquakes. The fund is also used to help with medical treatment like kidney transplantation, cancer treatment and acid attack. The fund consists entirely of public contributions and does not get any bu

Landslides in Himachal Pradesh

Landslides in Himachal Pradesh Landslides are simply defined as the mass movement of rock, debris or earth down a slope. They often take place in conjunction with earthquakes, floods and volcanoes. A prolonged spell of rainfall can cause a heavy landslides that can block the flow of the river for quite some time. The formation of river blocks can cause havoc to the settlements downstream on its bursting. In the hilly terrain, landslides have been a major and widely spread natu

How to minimize disaster risk for glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF)

How to minimize disaster risk for glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) Suitably called Earth's “Third Pole”, the Himalayan region is home to the largest ice mass outside of the planet's Polar Regions. The glaciers in the Himalayas are melting at a faster rate creating new lakes and expanding the existing ones. Besides, the rising temperatures and extreme precipitation events make the region increasingly prone to a variety of natural hazards, including devastating g

State Disaster Response Fund

State Disaster Response Fund The Centre has released the first instalment of the State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF) for 2021-22 to all the States, in the wake of the second wave of COVID-19. Normally, the annual exercise of the release of the first instalment is usually done in June, as per the recommendations of the Finance Commission. As a special dispensation, the Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance, at the recommendation of the Home Ministry, has released in advance the

Fukushima Radioactive Water to be Released in Seas

Fukushima Radioactive Water to be Released in Seas Japan is planning to release about 1 million metric tons of radioactive water from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant. About Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant: Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant is located in the town of Okuma, Japan. The reactor is located on the country’s east coast. It is about 220 km north-east of the capital Tokyo. The 2011 Earthquake, destroyed the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant’s electricity and coo

Disaster management- Fireworks accident at Virudhunagar

Accidents at the fireworks unit in Virudhunagar Context In the latest accident at a fireworks unit in Virudhunagar, at last count, 20 lives have perished, while 28 workers are in hospital. Major fireworks Industries in Tamil Nadu are at: Virudhunagar, Cuddalore ,Sivakasi and Madurai Reasons for accidents at fireworks Industries Gross violation of norms governing the hazardous industry. Human error in handling explosive substances. Unlicensed units that have m

Nanda Devi Glacial Burst in Uttarakhand: Important PT Points

Nanda Devi Glacial Burst in Uttarakhand: Important PT Points The glacial burst at the Nanda Devi glacier caused flash floods in Dhauliganga & Rishiganga rivers. The tapovan-Vishnugad project located on the Dhauliganga river was washed away. While Rishiganga hydel project was located on Rishiganga River. Originating at Vasudhara Tal, a glacial lake in Uttarakhand, the Dhauliganga flows in a meandering course, which takes it through the Nanda Devi National Park.

Uttarakhand floods

Uttarakhand floods Introduction The staggering collapse of part of a glacier in Uttarakhand’s Nanda Devi mountain and the ensuing floods that have claimed many lives come as a deadly reminder that this fragile, geologically dynamic region. Reason of flash floods A significant slice of the glacier, dislodged by a landslide, produced roaring torrents in the Rishiganga and Dhauliganga rivers in Chamoli district, trapping unsuspecting workers at two hydro power project sit

Flash Droughts

Flash Droughts What are Flash droughts? Flash droughts are those that occur very quickly, with soil moisture depleting rapidly. Normally, developing drought conditions take months, but these happen within a week or two weeks’ time. Several factors including atmospheric anomalies, and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions play an important role. In 1979, India faced a severe flash drought, affecting about 40% of the country and taking a toll on agriculture. An article p

India much safer against Tsunami threat: INCOIS

India much safer against Tsunami threat: INCOIS Tsunamis Definition: Tsunamis are a series of waves usually generated by movement of the sea floor. These movements are caused by different types of geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions. The word tsunami is a Japanese word, represented by two characters: tsu, meaning, "harbor", and nami meaning, "wave". They frequently occur in the Pacific, where dense oceanic plates slide und


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