Emergence of Gandhi
Why Nationalist Upsurge at End of First World War
Post-War economic hardship.
Expectations of Political Gains for Cooperation in the War
Nationalist disillusionment with imperialism worldwide.
Impact of Russian Revolution.
Dyarchy in provinces.
Two lists—reserved and transferred—for administration. Reserved subjects to be administered by governor through executive council and transferred subjects to be admini
First Phase of Revolutionary Activities
Reasons for emergence
Younger elements not ready to retreat after the decline of open phase.
Leadership’s failure to tap revolutionary energies of the youth.
Government repression left no peaceful avenues open for protest.
Assassinate unpopular officials to strike terror and arouse people to expel the British with force; based on individual heroic actions on lines of Irish nationalists or Russian nihilist
Assessment of Social Reform Movements
- Positive and Negative Aspects
The orthodox sections of society could not accept the scientific ideological onslaught of the socio-religious rebels.
As a result of this, the reformers were subjected to abuse, persecution, issuing of fatwas and even assassination attempts by the reactionaries.
However, in spite of opposition, these movements managed to contribute towards the liberation of the individual from the conform
Advent of the Europeans in India
Why a Sea Route to India
European economy growing rapidly, demand for luxury goods.
Spirit of renaissance in the 15th-century Europe
Capture of Constantinople in 1453, and Syria and Egypt later by the Ottoman Turks calling for a new route to reach India without dealing with Arabs and Turks.
Venice and Genoa, too small to stand up to the Turks.
Spain and Portugal aided with money and men by the North Europeans and by ships and technica
First World War and Nationalist Response
In the First World War (1914-1919), Britain allied with France, Russia, USA, Italy and Japan against Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey.
The nationalist response to British participation in the First World War was three-fold:
Moderates supported as a matter of duty;
Extremists, including Tilak (who was released in June 1914), supported the war efforts in the mistaken belief that Britain would repay India’s loyalty with gratitude in th
Indian National Congress
- Foundation and the Moderate Phase
Foundation of Indian National Congress
First session held in 1885 (Bombay).
Indian National Union, formed by A.O. Hume, became Indian National Congress.
Foundational theories of INC and prominent believers:
Safety Valve Theory —Lala Lajpat Rai
Conspiracy Theory—R.P. Dutt
Lightning conductor Theory—G.K. Gokhale
Important leaders of Moderate Phase: Dadabhai Naoroji, Badruddin Tyabji,
Era of Militant Nationalism
Why Militant Nationalism Grew
1. Realisation that the true nature of British rule was exploitative, and that the British India government, instead of conceding more, was taking away even what existed.
2. Growth of self-confidence and self-respect.
3. Impact of growth of education—increase in awareness and Unemployment.
4. International influences and events which demolished the myt
Beginning of Modern Nationalism in India
The rise and growth of Indian nationalism has been traditionally explained in terms of Indian response to the stimulus generated by the British Raj through creation of new institutions, new opportunities, resources, etc.
Factors in Growth of Modern Nationalism
Understanding of contradictions in Indian and colonial interests
People came to realize that colonial rule was the major cause of India’s economic backwardness
Survey of Socio-Cultural Reform Movements
Raja Rammohan Roy and Brahmo Samaj-
Raja Rammohan Roy Believed in the modern scientific approach and principles of human dignity and social equality and aimed at political uplift of the masses through social reform.
Literary Contribution: Gift to Monotheists (1809), Precepts of Jesus (1820), Translated into Bengali the Vedas and the five Upanishads to prove his conviction that ancient Hindu text
Socio religious reform movements
Basically, there were two kinds of reform movements in the 19th century in India:
Reformist- These movements responded with the time and scientific temper of the modern era. Brahmo Samaj, the Prarthana Samaj, the Aligarh Movement.
Revivalist- These movements started reviving ancient Indian traditions and thoughts and believed that the western thinking ruined Indian culture and ethos. Arya Samaj and the Deoband movement.
The only differenc
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