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05 October, 2019

12 Min Read

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Paper Topics Subject
GS-I Origin of Urdu
GS-II In search of the Wuhan spirit. International Relations
GS-III A welcome move, but it’s unlikely to spur demand Economic Issues
Planet Nine
GS-I :
Origin of Urdu

GS-I: Origin of Urdu

Context

Recently Punjab University had proposed to merge Department of Urdu language with school of foreign languages to be set up after merging departments of French, Russian, German, Chinese and Tibetan.

The move earned huge criticism and Punjab CM objected to this move of PU and said that Urdu is an Indian language like any other Indian language.

Origin of Urdu Language

  • The origin of Urdu language had taken place in India several centuries back and the names of three places-all in India- are quoted in the historical references.
  • All the historical references indicate that origin of Urdu had taken place in Punjab state of India.
  • The great poet Ameer Khusro, in his book ‘Ghurrat-ul- Kamal’ had written that Masood Lahori a renowned poet born in Lahore in 11th century had composed poetry in Hindvi (Urdu) which is also called Dehlavi.
  • This shows that Urdu was very much originated from Punjab as Lahore was the part of greater Punjab only before partition.
  • Even if it has derived some root words from Persian and Arabic languages then they were changed into Urdu language in India.
  • Before it is called Urdu, it was familiar with other names including Hindustani, Hindavi, Dehlavi and Rekhta.
  • The subject, object, auxiliary, verb, grammar, tenses of Urdu are very much Indian and like the Hindi language.

How it got developed and flourished and where?

  • As per the historical references after its origin in Punjab, Urdu got developed and flourished in Delhi along with part of Haryana state and some states in South where it was developed in the form of ‘Dakhni (Deccani) language’.
  • Historians said that it had developed and flourished in Delhi during the period of ‘Delhi Sultanate’ from 12th to 16th century and then during the period of ‘Mughal Empire’ in Delhi from 16th century to 19th century.
  • It flourished as several court poets used this language in their great poetry and writings. And then it was also developed in Deccan states.

Connection with Deccan India

  • When Delhi Sultanate and then Mughal Empire spread its wings towards the Deccan, Urdu speaking people of Delhi spread the language in South.
  • There it got developed and flourished in Dakhan (Deccan) states mainly in Karnataka, nowadays Telangana, part of Kerala and Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.
  • The language derived even local words of the local languages of those states and developed it as a ‘Dakhni’ language which was a bit distinctive of Urdu language in North.
  • It was during the reign of Delhi Sultanate emperor Muhammad –bin-Tughlaq who had decided to move his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad or Devagiri or Deogiri ( a present-day Aurangabad) in 1327 in Maharasthra.
  • With the migration of Delhi’s people, the several Urdu speaking people of Delhi spread its usage in Maharashtra for seven years till the capital of Delhi Sultanate was not reversed to Delhi in 1334.
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GS-II : International Relations
In search of the Wuhan spirit.

GS-II: In search of the Wuhan spirit.

News

The second informal summit between the leaders of India and China is scheduled to take place in the second week of October.

Wuhan summit

  • At the Wuhan Summit last year, a decision was made to hold more such summits, aimed at ensuring “higher levels of strategic communications.”
  • China agreed to an informal summit in 2018 despite so many achievements and it actually did not needed to make concessions to India.

Choice of Mamallapuram:

  • Wuhan was picked by President Xi Jinping as the venue last year to demonstrate China’s economic resilience and might.
  • Mamallapuram is symbolic of India’s ‘soft power’. It is an important town of the Pallava dynasty that ruled this part of south India from 275 CE to 897 CE, is renowned for its architecture, widely admired across the world.
  • Mamallapuram and the Pallava dynasty are also historically relevant. The earliest recorded security pact between China and India involved a Pallava king from whom the Chinese sought help to counter Tibet, which had by then emerged as a strong power posing a threat to China.

Post Wuhan:

  • Since then, China has met with certain setbacks geo-politically and economically.
  • India is beset by a host of economic woes and now seems better positioned today than in 2018.
  • Doklam and the disputed border between the two countries remains an issue of concern.
  • Hopes raised at the Wuhan Summit that the two countries would jointly work together on an economic project in Afghanistan did not work. China, along with countries like Pakistan, remains more intent on ensuring that India has no role to play there.
  • Relations between China and the U.S. have sharply deteriorated. A vast majority of nations in the West have cooled off towards China.
  • A further strengthening of India-Russia ties, as also a new triangular relationship of Russia, India and Japan, appear to be altering equations in the East Asian region.

Contradictory outlook of the two countries:

  • China and India continue to compete and have a contradictory outlook on many strategic and civilisational issues.
  • These include the nature of Asian security, regional stability and the role of the U.S. in the region.
  • The China-Pakistan axis has been further cemented.

China’s domestic scene :

  • The economy is far more fragile than in early 2018.
  • Internal security concerns such as unrest in Tibet, inroads made by radical extremist groups in Xinjiang and the latest turn of events in Hong Kong are also reinforcing fears.
  • The relentless attack by the U.S. on China’s economic practices has only aggravated the problem.

Way Forward:

India must ensure that it does not provoke China to the point where it would be inclined to indulge in ‘adventurism’.

“Subduing the enemy without fighting” has been a recurrent theme in Chinese thinking, and while informal summits have their uses, it is imperative not to overlook this aspect.

China’s efforts are likely to be directed towards ‘disruption’, concentrating on disrupting the strategic alliances that India has forged.

 

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GS-III : Economic Issues
A welcome move, but it’s unlikely to spur demand

GS-III: A welcome move, but it’s unlikely to spur demand

News

With the 25 basis points (bps) rate cut, RBI returned to the conventional wisdom of a rate change in multiples of 25bps.

RBI statement

  • MPC decided to continue with an accommodative stance as long as it is necessary to revive growth while ensuring that inflation remains within the target.
  • RBI’s decision to increase the household income limit for borrowers of NBFCs and MFIs is welcome. It will enhance credit delivery to a larger customer base at the bottom of the pyramid.
  • There is an attempt to boost the domestic forex derivatives market. RBI has decided to allow domestic banks to offer foreign exchange prices to non-residents on a 24-hour basis.

???????Efficacy of rate cuts:

  • This may push the debt markets to take a cue from the second-generation policy signals and yields may soften from the current level.
  • Efficacy of rate cuts is questionable against elevated household leverage, deteriorating company fundamentals, and weak demand.
  • The number of downgrades in H1FY20 grew by 66% vis-à-vis a 20% de-growth for the number of upgrades. The pace of downgrades has been increasing.
  • Financial flows to the commercial sector in H1FY20 are significantly lower due to a decline in funding from banks and non-bank sources.
  • Despite a rising interest scenario, credit had expanded by over ?1.65 trillion but contracted by ?93,700 crores even as we are in an aggressive rate cut cycle. This indicates credit risk aversion continues to play center stage for the non-bank sector.

Fiscal policy:

  • Centre has done a remarkable job in maintaining fiscal consolidation.
  • We are increasingly concerned about the fiscal position of the states.
  • Way ahead

    More clarity is needed to crystallize the KYC requirements for off-shore entities as also their tax implications.

    In the current context, an only monetary policy rate cut would not work in isolation. It must be complemented by fiscal expansion.

     

     

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GS-III :
Planet Nine

GS-III: Planet Nine.

News

Planet Nine

  • Hidden in the outer Solar System lurks a presence, believed to be a gigantic planet orbiting the same Sun and casting a visible influence on the behaviour of a number of other objects.
  • Although it has not yet been spotted, this behaviour would be difficult to explain if such a presence did not exist.
  • It is popularly referred to as Planet Nine, the presumed ninth planet of the Solar System, and occasionally as Planet X.

Planet of tiny black hole?

  • Scientists have proposed that this could be a tiny black hole instead.
  • They have shown that the behaviour of certain Trans-Neptunian Objects like a primordial black hole.

Primordial black hole

  • A primordial black hole is one that is believed to have formed immediately after the creation of the universe.
  • Like Planet Nine, primordial black holes too have been predicted to exist including by the late Stephen Hawking but none has been spotted as yet.

What do we know of Planet Nine so far?

Over the years, scientists have sought to explain several puzzling aspects of the Solar System by attributing these to the influence of Planet Nine.

In a 2016 paper made out a case for Planet Nine’s existence by arguing that it could be responsible for the peculiar alignment of icy objects on the outskirts of the Solar System.

What, then, is the basis of the new suggestion about a black hole?

  • Researchers based their theory proposed two gravitational anomalies.
  • One is the unusual orbits of asteroids beyond the orbit of Neptune, which have fed the prediction of Planet Nine, estimated to be somewhere between 5 and 20 times the mass of the Earth.
  • The other anomaly was observed thousands of light years away, by a project called the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE).
  • In six observations, an object bent the light of a star like black holes do. This is called microlensing.

Can the black hole be found?

  • The catch is that it is much harder to look for a black hole than to look for a planet, especially when the black hole is predicted to be of small dimensions.
  • However, it is reasonable to expect a dark matter halo surrounds this black hole.
  • If dark matter can annihilate into particles we know, the halo surrounding the black hole would radiate high energy photons and the halo would be visible in X-rays and gamma rays.

 

 

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