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20 September, 2019

13 Min Read

GS-II :
Access to Internet is a basic right, says Kerala High Court

GS-II: Access to Internet is a basic right, says Kerala High Court

News

The Kerala High Court held that the right to have access to the Internet is part of the fundamental right to education as well as the right to privacy under Article 21 of the Constitution.

Right to access Internet

  • The court ordered to re-admit a student who had been expelled from the college hostel for using her mobile phone beyond the restricted hours.
  • The court observed that when the Human Rights Council of the UN has found that the right of access to Internet is a fundamental freedom and a tool to ensure right to education.
  • A rule or instruction which impairs the said right of the students cannot be permitted to stand in the eye of law.
  • The bench contended that the use of mobile phones amounted to a violation of fundamental right to freedom of speech and expression under Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution.

Restrictions on Art. 19(1)(a)

  • The court cited the observations of the Supreme Court in the S.Rengarajan and others v. P. Jagjivan Ram (1989) case.
  • It said that the fundamental freedom under Article 19(1)(a) can be reasonably restricted only for the purposes mentioned in Article 19(2) .
  • And the restriction must be justified on the anvil of necessity and not the quicksand of convenience or expediency.
  • 19(2) provides for reasonable restrictions on Art. 19(1)(a) in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence.
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Source: THE HINDU

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GS-II :
PoK and Gilgit Baltistan, parts of J&K under Pakistan occupation

GS-II: PoK and Gilgit Baltistan, parts of J&K under Pakistan occupation

News

External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar said this week that “we expect one day we will have physical jurisdiction” over Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK).

Supporting regulation

  • A resolution unanimously adopted by Parliament on February 22, 1994 affirmed that “the State of Jammu & Kashmir has been, is and shall be an integral part of India.
  • It demanded that Pakistan must vacate the areas of the Indian State of Jammu and Kashmir, which they have occupied through aggression.
  • PoK and GB are both part of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, which is an integral part of India by virtue of its accession to India in 1947.

The PoK:

  • Pakistan Occupied Kashmir is an area of 13,297 sq km, which was under the control of the Pakistani forces when the ceasefire line came into effect on January 1, 1949.
  • That was after a 14-month period of hostilities between India and Pakistan, which began with an invasion of Kashmir by Pashtun tribesmen, and later its Army, to seize Kashmir.
  • In 1963, through an agreement, Pakistan ceded to China over 5,000 sq km of J&K land under its control, in the Shaksgam area, in northern Kashmir, beyond the Karakoram.

And what is Gilgit Baltistan?

  • This is a picturesque, hilly region to the north of PoK and east of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
  • The British sold it, along with the rest of Jammu and Kashmir, to the Dogra ruler of Jammu, Gulab Singh, after defeating the Sikh army in 1846.
  • However they retained controlled over the area through a lease extracted from the Maharaja.This lease was last renewed in 1935.
  • In 1947, a British army officer of the rank of Colonel imprisoned Maharaja Hari Singh’s governor in the region, and handed over the area for accession to Pakistan.
  • Gilgit Baltistan (GB) is spread over 72,871 sq km, and is five-and-a-half times the size of PoK. But it is sparsely populated, with just under 20 lakh people.
  • GB is divided into three administrative divisions and 10 districts.

What is the administrative status in Gilgit Baltistan?

  • Though both PoK and GB are ruled directly from Islamabad, neither is officially listed as the territory of Pakistan.
  • Pak has just four provinces: Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (which now includes the Federally Administered Tribal areas or FATA), Balochistan, and Sindh.
  • PoK and Gilit Baltistan are both “autonomous territories”.
  • Pakistan has kept this fiction going, as incorporating these areas into its map would damage its international position in the UN and elsewhere that the entire Jammu and Kashmir is “disputed”.

Source: Indian Express

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GS-II :
India unlikely to meet ‘Poshan Abhiyan’ targets ,finds study

GS-II: India unlikely to meet ‘Poshan Abhiyan’ targets ,finds study

News

India is unlikely to meet targets under the ambitious  Poshan Abhiyan or National nutrition Mission for reduction in prevalence of stunting , underweight , low birth and anaemia in women a and children by 2022.

Poshan Abhiyan:

  • There are many little things that can be employed in our country’s effective fight against malnutrition. Today, due to lack of awareness, both poor and affluent families are affected by malnutrition. The month of September will be celebrated as ‘Poshan Abhiyaan’ across the country. You must get connected with it, get information about this initiative, add some new facet to ‘Poshan Abhiyaan’ by contributing to it. If you manage to save a few people from malnutrition, it would mean that we can bring the country out of the circle of malnutrition” .
  • Poshan Month was launched last year by the government to improve the nutritional status of children up to 6 years, adolescent girls, pregnant women and lactating mothers to achieve specific targets for reduction in low birth weight babies, stunting growth, under nutrition and prevalence of anaemia over next three years.
  • Ministry of Women and Child Development under POSHAN Abhiyaan.
  • POSHAN Abhiyaan (National Nutrition Mission) was launched by the government on March 8, 2018.
  • The Abhiyaan targets to reduce stunting, undernutrition, anemia (among young children, women and adolescent girls) and reduce low birth weight by 2%, 2%, 3% and 2% per annum respectively.
  • The target of the mission is to bring down stunting among children in the age group 0-6 years from 38.4% to 25% by 2022.
  • POSHAN Abhiyaan aims to ensure service delivery and interventions by use of technology, behavioural change through convergence and lays-down specific targets to be achieved across different monitoring parameters.
  • Under the Abhiyaan, Swasth Bharat Preraks will be deployed one in each district for coordinating with district officials and enabling fast and efficient execution of the Abhiyaan across the country. Swasth Bharat Preraks would function as catalyst for fast tracking the implementation of the Abhiyaan.

Malnutrition Causes 45 Per Cent Child Deaths In India

Malnutrition is a medical condition caused due to an unbalanced diet that is deficiencies, excesses or imbalance in a person’s intake of one or more vital nutrients. Malnutrition is broadly classified into two categories – under nutrition and obesity. Mal means bad therefore malnutrition means bad nutrition. Earlier malnutrition implied undernutrition, but over the years the meaning has changed. It also includes obesity and being overweight.

India ranked 103 out of 119 countries in the Global Hunger Index 2018. India slipped by three positions as compared to 100th rank in 2017. With a score of 31.3, India suffers from a level of hunger that is serious. The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is a tool that comprehensively measures and tracks hunger at global, regional, and national levels, while taking into account undernourishment, child wasting, child stunting, and child mortality. All the four parameters are directly related to lack of food and malnutrition, which was the leading cause of death and disability in India in 2017, states the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 prepared by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME).

Way Forward

Health and nutrition are the priority areas of our government. Health remains one of the key areas in our quest of building an inclusive and new India. An integral part of our vision is achieving ‘kuposhan mukt bharat’ (malnutrition-free India) by 2022. Balanced and nutritious food is essential for all of us, more so for women and the new-born, since these two categories are the foundation of the future of our society. Under the ‘Poshan Abhiyaan’ campaign, nutrition made available with the help of modern scientific methods is being converted into a mass movement all over the country.

 

Source: THE HINDU

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GS-IV : Miscellaneous
Issues in debate around setting an age limit for IVF

GS-IV: Issues in debate around setting an age limit for IVF

News

A 74-year-old woman from AP was recently recorded as the oldest in the world to give birth to twins through in-vitro fertilization or IVF. The medical community has expressed ethical and medical concerns over conception at such an advanced age.

Why this is a concern?

  • The average life expectancy of an Indian woman is 70 and of a man 69 and the medical community has expressed concerns over future of children born to such an elderly couple.
  • Medical technology has reached a stage where we can get even a 90-year-old pregnant. But there are complications that can risk human life.
  • Pregnancy in old age poses multiple risks  hypertension, diabetes, convulsions, bleeding, and cardiac complications to name a few.

Can a doctor face action?

  • Internationally this pregnancy is being condemned. Everything could have gone wrong. It sets a wrong precedent said doctors organization.
  • Several experts have demanded punitive action, saying the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) should deregister his Andhra Pradesh centre.
  • But with no law in place a Bill is pending the assisted reproductive technology (ART) industry continues to operate in a grey zone.
  • In 2005, when ICMR drafted guidelines for ART, it had not set an age limit keeping in mind that reproductive rights were a fundamental right for a woman.

The Assisted Reproductive Technologies (Regulation) Bill, 2010

  • Globally, an estimated 15% of couples are infertile.
  • The ART Regulation Bill, 2010, states that in the Indian social context, children are “old-age insurance”.
  • The Bill proposes the upper age limit at 45 for women and 50 for men to undergo the IVF procedure.
  • As of now, several centres rely on ICMR’s 2017 guidelines that recommend the same age limits. Even for adoption, the total age of the couple must not exceed 110 years.
  • With increasing life expectancy, doctors are in talks with the government to increase the IVF age limit to 50-52 years for women.

Laws in other countries

  • Most countries that have a law range the upper limit for IVF between 40 and 50 years.
  • In the US, the upper limit for IVF is 50, and for ovum donation, 45.
  • In Australia, guidelines prohibit IVF beyond menopause (52 years).
  • In the UK, 42 is the age limit for women to seek free insurance under National Health Service. In Canada, the age limit is 43.

Source: Indian Express

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