25 July, 2019
0 Min Read
|GS-I||What are India’s challenges as its fertility rate falls?|
|GS-II||Faltering steps in the anti-AIDS march|
|GS-III||IUCN ‘Red List’|
|India’s first dragon blood-oozing tree|
GS-I Paper: What are India’s challenges as its fertility rate falls?
Higher education, increased mobility, late marriage, financially independent women and overall prosperity are all contributing to a falling Total fertility rate.
What does the data say about India’s Total fertility rate?
The government’s Sample Registration System in 22 states shows that TFR for India declined to 2.2 in 2017 after being stable at 2.3 between 2013 and 2016. TFR indicates the average number of children expected to be born to a woman during her reproductive span of 15-49 years. The 2017 figure is just 10 basis points more than the replacement level of 2.1%. The replacement level is the number of children needed to replace the parents, after accounting for fatalities, skewed sex ratio, infant mortality, etc. Population starts falling below this level.
How does TFR vary between urban and rural areas?
The total fertility rate has more than halved in both urban and rural areas, falling even below the replacement level in the former where it is 1.7, down from 4.1 in 1971. In rural areas, TFR has fallen from 5.4 to 2.4 during the same period. For rural areas, it varies from 1.6 in Delhi and Tamil Nadu to 3.3 in Bihar. For urban areas, the variation is from 1.1 in Himachal Pradesh to 2.4 in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Of the 22 states, only six have a TFR of 2 or more in urban areas. There are 10 states where TFR is below 2 in rural regions.
Why is TFR falling?
Higher education, increased mobility, late marriage, financially independent women and overall prosperity are all contributing to a falling TFR. It goes below 2 in both urban and rural areas, where girls complete schooling and reduces further as they pass college. Bihar, with the highest TFR of 3.2, had the maximum percentage of illiterate women at 26.8%, while Kerala, where the literacy rate among women is 99.3%, had among the lowest fertility rates. As more cities come up, people move for jobs and employment tenure gets shorter.
GS-II Paper: Faltering steps in the anti-AIDS march
The joint UN programme on AIDS commonly known as UNAIDS is facing worst challenges afflicting the global AIDS response this time an existential threat questioning its very relevance.
A pivotal role
What does it do?
Antiretroviral therapy is the daily use of a combination of HIV medicines to treat HIV.ART saves lives, but does not cure HIV.
AIDS- Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
Causes Of AIDS
GS-III Paper: IUCN ‘Red List’
About IUCN ‘Red List’
Red list categories of IUCN
Species are classified by the IUCN Red List into nine groups specified through criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, and degree of population and distribution fragmentation. They are:
GS-III Paper: India’s first dragon blood-oozing tree
Assam has added to India’s botanical wealth a plant that yields dragon’s blood — a bright red resin used since ancient times as medicine, body oil, varnish, incense and dye.
Copyright© Aspire IAS Academy. All rights reserved. Powered by CLT Technologies & Edu-Publishers Private Limited.