29 October, 2019 0 Min Read
|GS-II||PAKISTAN DENIES OVERFLIGHT PERMISSION TO INDIAN PM NARENDA MODI||International Organisations|
|STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP COUNCIL BETWEEN INDIA AND SAUDI ARABIA||International Relations|
|GS-III||BASIC MINISTERIAL MEETING ON CLIMATE CHANGE|
GS-I : Geography
According to the India Meteorological Department (IMD), Supercyclone ‘Kyarr’, in the Arabian Sea has moved westwards and away from India’s coast.
Tropical Cyclone :
• A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain or squalls.
• It is an intense low-pressure area in the atmosphere over tropical or sub-tropical waters, with organised convection (i.e. thunderstorm activity) and winds at low levels, circulating either anti-clockwise (in the northern hemisphere) or clockwise (in the southern hemisphere).
• From the centre of a cyclonic storm, pressure increases outwards.
• The amount of the pressure drop in the centre and the rate at which it increases outwards gives the intensity of the cyclones and the strength of winds.
• The cyclones are classified as severe (MSW of 48-63 knots), very severe (MSW of 64-89 knots), extremely severe (MSW of 90-119 knots) and super cyclonic storm (MSW of 120 knots or more). One knot is equal to 1.8 kmph.
CONDITIONS OF TROPICAL CYCLONE FORMATION :
• A source of warm, moist air derived from tropical oceans with sea surface temperature normally near to or in excess of 27 °C
• Winds near the ocean surface blowing from different directions converging and causing air to rise and storm clouds to form.
• Winds that do not vary greatly with height – known as low wind shear. This allows the storm clouds to rise vertically to high levels;
• Coriolis force/spin induced by the rotation of the Earth. The formation mechanisms vary across the world, but once a cluster of storm clouds starts to rotate, it becomes a tropical depression.
• If it continues to develop it becomes a tropical storm, and later a cyclone/ super cyclone.
Kyarr is the ninth super cyclone to have developed in the North Indian Ocean, after Super Cyclone Gonu in 2007.
Gonu was also the strongest cyclone to have made landfall in Oman.
Before that, Odisha was hit by a Super Cyclone in 1999 causing catastrophic damage to the state and massive loss of life and property.
The name Kyaar was given by Myanmar.
In 2000, eight countries came together to assign names to the tropical cyclones that originate in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian sea: Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand.
It was then decided that each country will submit a set of names which will be used one by one to name the cyclones. The framing of the list began in September 2004 and later 64 names, eight from each country, were finalised
Source: THE HINDU
GS-II : International Organisations
India has approached ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) after Pakistan denied overflight permission for PM Modi to use its air space.
The overflight clearances are granted by other countries according to ICAO guidelines.
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a UN specialized agency, established by States in 1944 to manage the administration and governance of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention).
A. ICAO works with the Convention’s 193 Member States and industry groups to reach consensus on international civil aviation Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) and policies in support of a safe, efficient, secure, economically sustainable and environmentally responsible civil aviation sector.
B. These SARPs and policies are used by ICAO Member States to ensure that their local civil aviation operations and regulations conform to global norms, which in turn permits more than 100,000 daily flights in aviation’s global network to operate safely and reliably in every region of the world.
C. ICAO also coordinates assistance and capacity building for States in support of numerous aviation development objectives; produces global plans to coordinate multilateral strategic progress for safety and air navigation.
D. It monitors and reports on numerous air transport sector performance metrics; and audits States’ civil aviation oversight capabilities in the areas of safety and security.
• Convention on International Civil Aviation (also known as Chicago Convention), was signed on 7 December 1944 by 52 States.
• Pending ratification of the Convention by 26 States, the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) was established.
• ICAO came into being on 4 April 1947. In October of the same year, ICAO became a specialized agency of the United Nations linked to Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
• The Convention establishes rules of airspace, aircraft registration and safety, and details the rights of the signatories in relation to air travel.
• The Convention also exempts air fuels in transit from (double) taxation.
Source: THE HINDU
The Prime Minister of India visited Saudi Arabia from 28th- 29th October 2019.
The visit was the second visit of the Prime Minister to the country in three years.
• India-Saudi Strategic Partnership Council was formed to coordinate on strategically important issues. The council will be headed by the Prime Minister and Crown Prince Mohammed and will meet every two years.
• India is the fourth country with which Saudi Arabia has formed such a strategic partnership, after the UK, France and China.
• 12 Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) on issues related to defence industries, security, air services, renewable energy, medicine products regulation, prevention of narcotics trafficking, and the use of RuPay cards in Saudi Arabia.
• India also cleared an MoU that will help Hajj pilgrims to travel comfortably in Saudi Arabia during the pilgrimage seasons.
Stand on terrorism :
• Both sides condemned terrorism in all forms and stated that no particular religion, race or culture should be linked with international terrorism.
• Discussed a number of regional conflicts like the war in Syria and Yemen and sought lasting peace in the Palestinian territories for the establishment of the independent Palestinian state based on the pre-1967 borders with "Jerusalem as its capital".
• It is Saudi Arabia’s annual investment forum, also known as ‘Davos in the Desert’. The informal name derives from the World Economic Forum’s annual meeting that is held in Davos, Switzerland, where world leaders discuss and shape agendas for pressing international issues.
• The Prime Minister of India also invited Saudi companies to invest in India's energy sector as India has set a target of $100 billion investment in the sector by 2024.
Cooperation in the Energy Sector:
Saudi Arabia is keen to play a role in the creation of strategic petroleum reserves at Padur in Karnataka.
A study is being conducted for the setting up of the world’s largest greenfield refinery at Raigarh in Maharashtra by Saudi Aramco, Adnoc of the United Arab Emirates and Indian public sector oil companies.
India - Saudi Arabia Bilateral ties:
1. Saudi Arabia is a strategic partner of India since the signing of the Riyadh Declaration in 2010.
2. It is currently India’s second-largest supplier of crude oil– providing about 18 % of its energy needs. It also has a major role in India’s Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPRs).
3. The largest supplier of crude oil is Iraq.
4. It is India’s 4th largest trade partner. In 2018-19, the India-Saudi bilateral trade was the US $ 34.03 billion.
5. The 2.6 million-strong Indian community in Saudi Arabia is the largest expatriate community in the Kingdom and is the ‘most preferred community’ due to their expertise, sense of discipline, law-abiding and peace-loving nature.
6. Haj pilgrimage is another important component of bilateral relations.
The 29th BASIC Ministerial Meeting on Climate Change was held recently in Beijing, China.
The developed countries to take urgent action to close gaps and provide support to developing nations as a part of the commitment under the Paris agreement on climate change.
Global climate action should promote climate justice by recognising the fundamental equality of all people in accessing economic growth and sustainable development.
There is need for people’s participation and climate friendly lifestyles for addressing the challenge of climate change.
Developed countries should take urgent actions to close the gaps, including revisiting their targets on mitigation under the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, and fulfilling their commitments of providing support to developing countries.
WHO ARE BASIC COUNTRIES ?
It is geopolitical alliance (bloc) of four advanced developing countries – Brazil, South Africa, India and China. It was established by agreement in 2009. These four countries collectively account for one-third of world’s geographical area and nearly 40% of world’s population.
BASIC countries broadly have common position on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and raising the massive funds that are needed to fight climate change. Since 2009, they have cooperated in international climate negotiations, reflecting their aspiration to have a larger say in global politics.
Mandate: These four countries as single bloc are committed to act jointly at Copenhagen climate summit, including possible united walk-out if their common minimum position was not met by the developed nations. They are collectively working to define common position on emission reductions and climate aid money and try to convince other countries to sign up to Copenhagen Accord.
The signatory nations have a broadly common position on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and raising the massive funds that are needed to fight climate change.
The BASIC countries constituted one of the parties in the Copenhagen Accord reached with the US-led grouping.
The Accord, was not legally binding.
The BASIC group wields considerable heft purely because of the size of the economies and populations of the member countries.
It constitutes one-third of the world’s geographical area and nearly 40% of the world’s population, and when they unitedly speak in one voice this shows their determination.
BASIC is one of several groups of nations working together to fight climate change and carry out negotiations within the UNFCCC.
1. High vulnerability of developing countries to climate change effects and high resultant costs of adaptation”.
2. The findings of the IPCC Special Report on Global Warming make it incredibly clear that the impacts of an already warming world are significant, and that impacts at 2°C are catastrophic compared to those of 1.5°C. Yet, the BASIC ministers recalled the Paris goal of limiting the temperature rise to well under 2°C, and aspiring to limit it to 1.5°C.
3. The BASIC countries also contend that their nationally determined contributions (NDCs)— voluntary pledges of national efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
Way forward :
It is critical that all countries actively step-up to rapidly reduce global GHG emissions within their own jurisdictions and collectively work with each other to limit warming to 1.5°C.
Source: THE HINDU