30 December, 2019

4 Min Read

GS-I : Human Geography World Geography
Cyclone Sarai batters Fiji

Syllabus subtopic: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.


Prelims and Mains focus: about cyclone Sarai; tropical cyclones: types and formation; India-Fiji relations


News: Tropical Cyclone Sarai (Category 2) was moving slowly away from Fiji on Sunday, leaving two people dead and more than 2,500 needing emergency shelter. The cyclone damaged houses, crops and trees, cut power and forced the cancellation of several flights, stranding holidaymakers visiting the island nation, which is a major tourist draw.


About Tropical cyclones

  • A tropical cyclone is rapidly rotating storm system characterized by low pressure centre (eye), a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms(cumulonimbus clouds) that produce heavy rain.


  • Depending upon its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred by different names:
  1. Typhoons in Western North Pacific
  2. Willy-willies in Australia
  3. Baguio in Philippine Islands
  4. Hurricanes around North America
  5. Taitu in Japan
  6. Cyclone in Indian Ocean.


  • Tropical cyclone is formed over the ocean surface, because they are like giant engines that use warm, moist air as fuel; that is why they form only over warm ocean water near equator and not on equator as Coriolis Force is needed to form cyclone which is not there on equator. This is the reason tropical cyclone is formed 5 degree to 10 degree away from equator.


  • Low pressure centre in ocean tends to inward circular flow of air and warm air goes upward as this warm air goes up its temperature goes on increasing. The sky above the ocean has to be clear so as to facilitate vertical rise of warm air. And this rapidly rotating warm air flow is nothing but Cyclone.


Categories of Cyclone

  1. Category one (tropical cyclone)
  • Negligible house damage. Damage to some crops, trees and caravans. Craft may drag moorings.
  • A category one cyclone's strongest winds are GALES with typical gusts over open flat land of 90-125kph.
  • These winds correspond to Beaufort 8 and 9 (gales and strong gales).


  1. Category two (tropical cyclone)
  • Minor house damage. Significant damage to signs, trees and caravans. Heavy damage to some crops. Risk of power failure. Small craft may break moorings.
  • A category two cyclone's strongest winds are DESTRUCTIVE winds with typical gusts over open flat land of 125-164kph.
  • These winds correspond to Beaufort 10 and 11 (storm and violent storm).


  1. Category three (severe tropical cyclone)
  • Some roof and structural damage. Some caravans destroyed. Power failures likely.
  • A category three cyclone's strongest winds are VERY DESTRUCTIVE winds with typical gusts over open flat land of 165-224kph.
  • These winds correspond to the highest category on the Beaufort scale, Beaufort 12 (hurricane).


  1. Category four (severe tropical cyclone)
  • Significant roofing loss and structural damage. Many caravans destroyed and blown away. Dangerous airborne debris. Widespread power failures.
  • A category four cyclone's strongest winds are VERY DESTRUCTIVE winds with typical gusts over open flat land of 225-279kph.
  • These winds correspond to the highest category on the Beaufort scale, Beaufort 12 (hurricane).


  1. Category five (severe tropical cyclone)
  • Extremely dangerous with widespread destruction.
  • A category five cyclone's strongest winds are VERY DESTRUCTIVE winds with typical gusts over open flat land of more than 280kph.
  • These winds correspond to the highest category on the Beaufort scale, Beaufort 12 (hurricane).


About FIJI

  • Fiji, country and archipelago is located in the South Pacific Ocean. It surrounds the Koro Sea about 1,300 miles (2,100 km) north of Auckland, New Zealand.


  • The archipelago consists of some 300 islands and 540 islets scattered over about 1,000,000 square miles (3,000,000 square km). Of the 300 islands, about 100 are inhabited. The capital, Suva, is on the southeast coast of the largest island, Viti Levu (“Great Fiji”).


  • Fiji is one amongst advanced economies in the Pacific due to an abundance of forest, mineral, and fish resources.


  • Today, the main sources of foreign exchange are its tourism industry and sugar exports.



  • India’s links with Fiji commenced in 1879 when Indian labourers were brought here under indenture system to work on sugarcane plantations. Between 1879 and 1916 around 60,553 Indians were brought to Fiji. Beginning with early 20th century, Indian traders and others also started arriving in Fiji. In 1920, the indenture system was abolished.
  • There are strong cultural links between the countries as nearly half of Fiji's population is of Indian descent.
  • Prior to Fiji’s independence in 1970, India had a Commissioner since 1948 to look after the interests of people of Indian origin. It was later upgraded to High Commissioner after independence.
  • Fiji’s Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara visited India in 1971 and Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi visited Fiji in 1981.
  • Fiji is important to India for stronger engagement in Pacific Islands.

Source: The Hindu

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GS-II : International Relations West Asia
U.S. forces hit Iraqi Hezbollah bases

Syllabus subtopic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests, Indian diaspora.


Prelims and Mains focus: about the conflict in West Asia and its consequences for global geopolitics; about Hezbollah


News: The U.S. has bombed the headquarters of the Iran-backed Iraqi Hezbollah militant group in Iraq and Syria, the Pentagon said on Sunday, following a rocket attack in Iraq that killed an American civilian contractor.


Context: The attack was in response to repeated Kata’ib Hezbollah (KH) attacks on Iraqi bases that host Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) coalition forces, intended to degrade KH’s ability to conduct future attacks against OIR coalition forces.


What is Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR)?

  • It is the U.S. military's operational name for the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIL, in the vernacular, Daesh), including both the campaign in Iraq and the campaign in Syria.


  • Since 21 August 2016, the U.S. Army's XVIII Airborne Corps has been responsible for Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF—OIR).


  • The campaign is primarily waged by American air forces in support of local allies, most prominently the Iraqi security forces and Syrian Democratic Forces.


  • Combat ground troops, mostly special forces and artillery, have also been deployed, especially in Iraq. 75-80% of the airstrikes have been conducted by the military of the United States, with the other 20-25% by the United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Canada, the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Jordan.


About Hezbollah

  • Hezbollah is a Shia Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon.
  • It was founded in the early 1980s as part of an Iranian effort to aggregate a variety of militant Lebanese Shia groups into a unified organization.
  • Hezbollah acts as a proxy for Iran in the on-going Iran–Israel proxy conflict. Iran also supported Hezbollah during the South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000).


Source: The Hindu

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3 years on, a mere 30% of Poshan Abhiyaan funds used

Syllabus subtopic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections


Prelims and Mains focus: about poshan Abhiyan and challenges in its implementation; issue of funds utilization under the scheme


News: The State governments and the Union Territories utilised a mere 30% of the funds released under the Poshan Abhiyaan, or the National Nutrition Mission (NNM), since it was launched in 2017.

  • Barring Mizoram, Lakshadweep, Himachal Pradesh and Bihar, none of the governments used even half of the sum granted in the past three years, according to an analysis of the data shared in Parliament.



The CNNS (Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey), released by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in October, showed that 35% of children under the age of 5 are stunted and in this age group, 17% are wasted (low weight for height) and 33% underweight (low weight for age).


About Poshan Abhiyan

  • The Poshan Abhiyaan, the Centre’s flagship programme, is aimed at improving nutritional outcomes among pregnant women, lactating mothers and children by reducing the level of stunting, underweight, anaemia and low birth weight by 2022.


  • It is meant to benefit more than 10 crore people and was launched after a Cabinet decision on December 1, 2017, with a total budget of Rs. 9,046.17 crore for three years, 50% of which is through budgetary support, which is further divided into 60:40 between the Centre and the States, 90:10 for the north­eastern region and the Himalayan States and 100% for the Union Territories without legislature.


  • The remaining 50% is from the World Bank or other multilateral development banks. As a result, the Centre’s total share will be Rs. 2,849.54 crore.


A grim picture

  • With the three­year period drawing to a close, an analysis of the funds utilised paints a grim picture. According to the information given by Minister for Women and Child Development Smriti Irani in the recent session of Parliament, a total of Rs. 4,283 crore was disbursed by the Centre to different States and Union Territories.


  • Of this, Rs. 1,283.89 crore, or only 29.97% of the funds granted, were utilised until October 31, 2019. Figures were not available for 2017­ 2018 as the scheme was launched at the fag end of the fiscal.


Perfomance of various states

  • The five best performers were Mizoram (65.12%), Lakshadweep (61.08%), Bihar (55.17%), Himachal Pradesh (53.29%) and Meghalaya (48.37%).
  • The worst five performers were Punjab (0.45%), Karnataka (0.74%), Kerala (8.75%), Jharkhand (13.94%) and Assam (23.01%).
  • During 2019­20, funds were released for 19 States, though 12 of them had used less than a third of the funds released in the previous two years.


Way ahead

  • The programme was conceptualised as one to be implemented in phases. It is, thus, expected that utilisation will increase over years.
  • A number of activities had a slow start but are now picking up. These include the Integrated Child Development Services­Common Application Software (ICDS-CAS) meant to monitor anganwadis. However, given the stiff  targets, translating the activities into outcomes will be critical.

Source: The Hindu

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Portal for swift grievance resolution likely

Syllabus subtopic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

Prelims and Mains focus: About Santusht portal and its significance; about EPFO and ESIC

News: The Labour Ministry has chalked out a plan to launch a portal ‘Santusht’ next month


Objective of ‘Santusht’ portal

  1. Speedy redressal of worker as well as employer grievances and ensuring implementation of labour laws at the grassroot level.
  2. Initially, it would monitor all services provided by retirement fund body EPFO and health insurance and services provider ESIC. Later, the portal would cover other wings of the Labour Ministry as well.


About Employees Provident Funds Organisation (EPFO):

  • EPFO is one of the World’s largest Social Security Organisations in terms of clientele and the volume of financial transactions undertaken. At present it maintains 17.14 crore accounts (Annual Report 2015-16) pertaining to its members.


  • The Employees’ Provident Fund came into existence with the promulgation of the Employees’ Provident Funds Ordinance on the 15th November, 1951. It was replaced by the Employees’ Provident Funds Act, 1952. The Employees’ Provident Funds Bill was introduced in the Parliament 1952 as a Bill to provide for the institution of provident funds for employees in factories and other establishments. The Act is now referred as the Employees’ Provident Funds & Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 which extends to the whole of India except Jammu and Kashmir. The Act and Schemes framed there under are administered by a tri-partite Board known as the Central Board of Trustees, Employees’ Provident Fund, consisting of representatives of Government (Both Central and State), Employers, and Employees.



  • The Central Board of Trustees administers a contributory provident fund, pension scheme and an insurance scheme for the workforce engaged in the organized sector in India. The Board is assisted by the Employees’ PF Organization (EPFO), consisting of offices at 135 locations across the country. The Organization has a well equipped training set up where officers and employees of the Organization as well as Representatives of the Employers and Employees attend sessions for trainings and seminars. The EPFO is under the administrative control of Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India.


  • The Board operates three schemes – EPF Scheme 1952, Pension Scheme 1995 (EPS) and Insurance Scheme 1976 (EDLI).




About Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC)

Employees’ State Insurance Scheme of India, is a multidimensional social security system tailored to provide socio-economic protection to worker population and their dependants covered under the scheme.


The scheme was inaugurated in Kanpur on 24th February 1952. The comprehensive and multi-pronged social security programme is administered by an apex corporate body called the Employees' State Insurance Corporation.

Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948

  • The promulgation of Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948 (ESI Act), by the Parliament was the first major legislation on social Security for workers in independent India.


  • The ESI Act 1948, encompasses certain health related eventualities that the workers are generally exposed to; such as sickness, maternity, temporary or permanent disablement, Occupational disease or death due to employment injury, resulting in loss of wages or earning capacity-total or partial. Social security provision made in the Act to counterbalance or negate the resulting physical or financial distress in such contingencies, are thus, aimed at upholding human dignity in times of crises through protection from deprivation, destitution and social degradation while enabling the society the retention and continuity of a socially useful and productive manpower.




  • Under Section 2(12) the Act is applicable to non-seasonal factories employing 10 or more persons.
  • Under Section 1(5) of the Act, the Scheme has been extended to shops, hotels, restaurants, cinemas including preview theatres, road-motor transport undertakings and newspaper establishments employing 10* or more persons.
  • Further under section 1(5) of the Act, the Scheme has been extended to Private Medical and Educational institutions employing 10* or more persons in certain States/UTs.

Note: However the threshold for Coverage of establishments is still 20 Employees in Maharashtra and Chandigarh. The existing wage limit for coverage under the Act is Rs.21,000/- per month (w.e.f. 01/01/2017).


Areas covered

The ESI Scheme is now notified in 526 Districts in 34 States and Union Territories, which include 346 complete District, 95 District Headquarters and in 85 Districts. The scheme is implemented in centers. The scheme is yet to be implemented in Arunachal Pradesh and Lakshadweep.

Source: The Hindu

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GS-III : Economic Issues Banking
Fall in new FDs at state-run banks a trust deficit issue

Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.


Prelims and Mains focus: about the key findings of the RBI report, about the trust deficit in public banking sector


News: The Report on Trend and Progress of Banking in India released last week had some interesting data on the total amount of term deposits in public sector banks (PSBs). This data suggests people seem to be losing faith in investing their fresh savings in PSBs.


How has the situation changed for PSBs?

Term deposits are popularly known as fixed deposits. Scheduled commercial banks in India had fixed deposits worth a total of Rs. 77.32 trillion as of 31 March. Of this figure, deposits with PSBs amounted to Rs. 51.34 trillion, or around 66%, of the total fixed deposits with banks. Private sector banks, on the other hand, had Rs. 22.07 trillion, or 29%, of the total deposits with banks. The situation has changed dramatically in the last decade, with PSBs losing market share to private sector banks in terms of fixed deposits. In March 2010, PSBs and private sector banks had 79% and 16% of the total deposits, respectively.



What has changed in the past few years?

The above chart plots incremental deposits or the total amount of fresh deposits that have come into banks every year. In 2018-19, a total of ?6.55 trillion came in as fresh deposits. Of this, private banks got ?5.04 trillion, or around 77%, of the total; PSBs got Rs. 72,113 crore, or around 11%. In 2016-17 and 2017-18, private banks accounted for 92% of the total fresh deposits. However, overall fixed deposit inflows into banks in 2016-17 and 2017-18 were considerably lower at Rs. 1.71 trillion and Rs. 2.64 trillion, respectively. The situation wasn’t always like this. PSBs had got around 80.5% of fresh deposits in 2010-11 and around 79% in 2013-14.


What does this tell us about the Indian banking system?

This tells us that in the last few years, people have preferred to invest their fresh savings with private banks. Between March 2015 and March 2019, state-owned banks got a total of Rs. 1.7 trillion as fresh fixed deposits. During the same period, private sector banks got Rs. 10.76 trillion as fresh fixed deposits, the bulk of which came in 2018-19.


Are people losing trust in state-owned banks?

This is basically what the data seems to suggest. Over the last few years some state-owned banks had been put under the Reserve Bank of India’s (RBI) prompt corrective action framework, where limitations were placed on their borrowing and lending activities. This has also played a role in PSBs ending up with fewer deposits. The other worrying bit is the dramatic fall in the amount of fresh deposits coming into banks over the last few years. The total amount of fresh fixed deposits peaked in 2013-14 at Rs. 8.09 trillion.


What does the fall in fresh deposits mean?

This is in line with falling savings in the overall economy. Between March 2015 and March 2019, fixed deposits with banks have grown at single digit rates. This explains why banks have not been able to reduce interest rates despite RBI cutting the repo rate repeatedly. They just don’t have enough fixed deposits. The good news is that fixed deposits grew by 9.2% in 2018-19, against a low of 2.8% in 2016-17.

Source: mint

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GS-III : Economic Issues Budget
GST overhaul next on agenda after budget

Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.


Prelims and Mains focus: about the key issues to be discussed regarding overhaul of GST; about the composition scheme: eligibility and its merits


News: The Narendra Modi administration and state governments will hold fresh negotiations to overhaul the goods and services tax (GST) after the Union budget is presented on 1 February, said a government official familiar with the development.


Key issues to be discussed

  • Finance ministers of central and state governments will discuss restructuring GST slabs and rates as well as ways to handle a revenue shortfall and the GST compensation to states in the year starting 1 April.
  • The discussions between the Centre and states will revolve around finding a middle ground to fix the structural flaws that have resulted in a significant shortfall in tax collections.
  • The discussions will address the larger question of what should be done when the Centre does not receive enough revenue to compensate states for their GST-related losses, a vital issue on which Centre-state relations and the stability of GST rests.



  • Tax cuts and exemptions granted in several rounds since the rollout of GST have made it revenue-deficient rather than revenue-neutral, as was originally planned.
  • Tax cuts on consumer goods have also led to a situation where businesses are paying more taxes on raw materials than on finished products and subsequently claiming the excess paid as refunds.
  • Experts warned that any major change in the GST structure could unsettle the industry. It would be prudent to allow the economy to stabilize before embarking on any changes as businesses would prefer stability and certainty in tax policies when they are grappling with global economic head- winds.


What is on the anvil in next year’s budget?

  • The budget is expected to implement the recommendations of the Fifteenth Finance Commission (FFC), which submitted its interim report to President Ram Nath Kovind and finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman earlier this month.
  • The report focuses on sharing of tax revenue between Union and state governments. If the tax revenue that the Centre shares with states comes down in FY21 from the present 42% of the revenue pool, it could result in a showdown between the two.
  • The Centre is keen that states take a cut in their compensation dues, something states have resisted. The way this issue is settled will have an impact on the final report of FFC for the five years ending FY26. FFC’s suggestions made to the GST Council in September on states taking a cut in compensation did not receive an enthusiastic response from state ministers.


Key takeaways from the GST Council meeting this month

  • At the GST Council’s meeting on 18 December, officials made a presentation on revenue trends and suggestions on rejigging tax rates and slabs, but the council decided against taking it up due to the economic slowdown.
  • States were not keen on the proposal as it would lead to a rate increase on items in lower slabs, which could impact the common man.
  • The council had concluded in its last meeting that raising the rate of cess on items in the highest slab of 28% will not be sufficient to raise revenue to meet the shortfall.
  • However, items such as perfumes, cosmetics and vacuum cleaners that were moved from the 28% slab to the 18% slab could become a target of any rate increase in future discussions.
  • The decisions taken so far in terms of rate cuts and other relief given to businesses and traders have led to the exchequer forgoing about Rs. 1 trillion a year. These include:
  1. raising the threshold for GST registration from Rs. 20 lakh to Rs. 40 lakh;
  2. raising the limit for composition scheme from Rs. 75 lakh to Rs. 1.5 crore;
  3. and lowering the tax rate under that scheme to producers from 2% to 1%.

What is the composition scheme under GST?

  • The composition scheme is an alternative method of tax levy under GST designed to simplify compliance and reduce compliance costs for small taxpayers.
  • The main feature of this scheme is that the business or person who has opted to pay tax under this scheme can pay tax at a flat percentage of turnover every quarter, instead of paying tax at normal rate every month.


Eligibility for this scheme

  • The composition scheme is applicable to manufacturers or traders whose taxable business turnover is up to Rs.1.5 crore (Rs.75 lakh in case of North-Eastern States). A service provider can opt for the scheme if his taxable turnover is up to Rs. 50 lakh.
  • However, businesses with inter-State supplies, manufacturers of ice cream, pan masala and tobacco, and e-commerce players cannot opt for the composition scheme.
  • To be eligible for the composition scheme, the registered tax payer must provide a declaration on the GST portal before the beginning of each financial year and not anytime during the year.


Tax rates under composition scheme

  • The applicable tax rates under the composition scheme are 1 per cent (0.5 per cent Central GST and 0.5 per cent State GST) of turnover in case of manufacturers and traders, 5 per cent in the case of restaurants (not serving alcohol) and 6 per cent for other service providers.
  • The tax is to be paid from tax payer’s own pocket without charging it to the customer. The words “composition taxable person, not eligible to collect tax on supplies” should be mentioned at the top of every bill issued by him.


Why is it important?

  • There are over 63 million Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in the country that created 110 million jobs and contributed about 29 per cent of the country’s economic output, as per the National Sample Survey (NSS) 73rd round conducted during 2015-16.


  • The composition scheme effectively acknowledges the importance of the MSME sector, by granting relief to it on GST filings, procedures and tax rates. As on October 1, 2018, there were 17,65,684 composition dealers amounting to about 16 per cent of registered tax payers under GST. The number is expected to go up with the recent increase in the threshold from Rs.1 crore to Rs.1.5 crore and the inclusion of service providers.


  • Under the composition scheme, the taxpayer can skip monthly returns and furnish only one return i.e. GSTR-4 on a quarterly basis by 18th of the month following end of the quarter and an annual return in GSTR-9A by December 31 of the next financial year. A dealer registered under the composition scheme is also not required to maintain detailed records.


What about its drawbacks?

  • The drawbacks of this scheme are that the taxpayer cannot be involved in inter-State transactions, imports or exports.
  • Also, the buyer transacting with a seller registered under composition scheme will not get the benefit of input tax credit, which impact the former’s sales.


What is Input Tax Credit?

Input credit means at the time of paying tax on output, you can reduce the tax you have already paid on inputs.

Say, you are a manufacturer –

  • tax payable on output (FINAL PRODUCT) is Rs 450
  • tax paid on input (PURCHASES) is Rs 300


You can claim INPUT CREDIT of Rs 300 and you only need to deposit Rs 150 in taxes.

Source: mint

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GS-III : Miscellaneous
CDS: Govt notifies retirement age at 65

Syllabus subtopic: Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate


Prelims and Mains focus: About the Chief of Defence Staff; its mandate, role and significance


News: The Central government on Saturday notified the retirement age for the newly created post of the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) as 65 years, which will be three years more than the retirement age of the three service chiefs.


  • The service chiefs, when appointed, are usually given a tenure of three years or till they attain the age of 62 years, whichever is earlier. There is no mention of a fixed tenure in the gazette notification stating the retirement age for the CDS.


Chief of Defence Staff (CDS)

  • The Union Cabinet had cleared the appointment of the CDS on December 24 in a four-star rank at par with the three service chiefs. He would be responsible for achieving “jointness in operation, logistics, transport, training, support services, communications, repairs and maintenance of the three services” within three years of assuming office.


  • The CDS will also serve as the permanent chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) which comprises the three service chiefs. So far, the chairmanship of the COSC has not been permanent and is held in rotation by the senior-most service chief, which has caused problems of inadequate attention and short tenures as Chairman, COSC.


  • General Bipin Rawat, the outgoing Army Chief, who retires on December 31, is seen as the frontrunner to be named as the first CDS. As the seniormost service chief, he holds the post of Chairman, COSC, which he was scheduled to hand over to the Navy Chief Admiral Karambir Singh on Friday.


  • But the Defence Ministry announced at the last minute that the ceremony had been postponed to December 31. The sudden postponement of the ceremony led to speculation that an announcement of the name of the new CDS was expected in the next couple of days.


  • A shortlist of five officers is believed to have been prepared by the ministry for the cabinet committee on appointments to take a decision. It has been assumed that as the biggest service among the three, the Army will have the first CDS and this may subsequently be rotated among the two other smaller services.



Way forward

The creation of the post of CDS is a long-awaited higher defence reform and giving the incumbent a stable tenure is a healthy move. The role and charter of the CDS has also been defined with a view to spur further defence reforms.





Source: Indian Express

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GS-I : Art and Culture Art Forms
President confers Dada Saheb Phalke Award to Amitabh Bachchan

President Ram Nath Kovind conferred Dada Saheb Phalke Award to  Amitabh Bachchan at a function held at Rashtrapati Bhavan on December  29, 2019. Dadasaheb Phalke Award is India's highest film honour. 

Dadasaheb Phalke Award

The Dadasaheb Phalke Award is the highest film honour in India. It is conferred annually by the Directorate of Film Festivals, under the Union Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.

The recipient of the prestigious honour is selected by a committee consisting of eminent film industry personalities. The award comprises a 'swarna kamal' medallion, a shawl and a cash prize worth Rs 1,000,000.

The award was established by the Union Government to honour Dadasaheb Phalke's immense contribution to Indian cinema. Dadasaheb Phalke, known as the father of Indian cinema, directed India's first full-length feature film, Raja Harishchandra in 1913.

Source: TH

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25 Feb, 2021
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