UPSC Courses

DNA banner


  • 29 October, 2022

  • 6 Min Read

2022 Forest Declaration Assessment

2022 Forest Declaration Assessment

  • Recent publication of the 2022 Forest Declaration Assessment revealed that the global deforestation rate only slightly decreased in 2021, by 6.3%, compared to the 2018–20 baseline.
  • At the 26th UN Conference of the Parties on Climate Change (COP26) in Glasgow, about 145 nations reaffirmed their commitment to stop and reverse land degradation and forest loss by 2030.
  • The Forest Declaration Assessment releases yearly updates on the status of the world's forests.
  • By 2030, 350 million hectares of degraded landscapes and forestlands are to be restored, according to the New York Declaration on Forests (NYDF), a political declaration that was adopted in 2014.

What are the Findings?


  • By 2030, not a single global indicator will have reversed deforestation.
  • A 10% annual reduction is required to keep deforestation on track to be stopped completely by 2030.
  • Even though efforts at reforestation and restoration are commendable, more forest land is being lost than gained.
  • Despite a decline in global forest loss in 2021, the crucial climate goal of halting deforestation by 2030 would still not be achieved.

Factors that Cause Deforestation

  • In 2021, Brazil was the country that contributed the most to global deforestation.
  • In comparison to the base period of 2018–2020, the nation saw a 3% increase in the rate of deforestation in 2021.
  • Brazil is the world's largest contributor to deforestation despite not showing a significant increase in its annual totals.
  • Deforestation occurred at rates of 6% and 3% in Bolivia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, respectively.

Increase in tree cover

  • Over the last two decades, the amount of trees on earth has increased by 130.9 million hectares.
  • In just 13 countries, there was a concentration of 75% of the global gain.
  • Russia (28.4%), Canada, the United States, Brazil, and China saw the biggest improvements.
  • With 2.1 million hectares (Mha) of additional tree cover, China had the largest net gain. India also saw an increase in tree cover of 0.87 Mha.
  • Globally, natural regeneration and assisted natural regeneration that took place outside of plantations are probably responsible for 118.6 Mha of the total gain in tree cover.
  • Deforestation decrease: Compared to 2018–20, Gabon reduced deforestation by 28% in 2021.
  • The nation implemented policies to enforce protected areas and stop illegal logging.
  • Following the implementation of the forest moratorium and improved enforcement procedures, Indonesia reduced deforestation.
  • The ban on fires caused by deforestation, which affects roughly 66 million hectares of primary forest and peatland (terrestrial wetland ecosystems), was first implemented in 2011 and has since been periodically renewed.
  • The coordinated implementation of the Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Deforestation in the Amazon between 2004 and 2012 in Brazil can be partly blamed for the decline in deforestation rates.
  • It established effective surveillance systems and protected areas.
  • Legal actions have been taken to protect forests in the European Union, Ecuador, and India in recent years.
  • The rights of nature enshrined in Ecuador's constitution were upheld by a constitutional court in 2021.


  • Important to keep in mind is that increased tree cover does not make up for decreased tree numbers.
  • Gains in forest cover do not offset the effects of forest loss on ecosystem services, biodiversity, or carbon storage. Protecting primary forests from losses in the first place should be the focus of all efforts.
  • To achieve the global goal of halting and reversing deforestation by 2030, forest finance must be on track.
  • The global cost of preserving, restoring, and improving forests is estimated to be up to USD 460 billion annually.
  • Averaging USD 2.3 billion annually, domestic and international mitigation funding for forests currently falls short of the necessary amount by less than 1%.
  • To reach the 2030 goals, forest funding must increase by up to 200 times.
  • Our economies rely heavily on forests, which are also essential to our well-being. More urgently than ever, action must be taken quickly to stop deforestation and scale up restoration in a way that benefits people, the environment, and the climate.
  • This calls for more inclusive, bottom-up solutions improved coordination and collaboration between the public, private, and civil society sectors, and a shift from commitment to implementation.

Deforestation: What is it?

  • Deforestation is the deliberate removal of trees from a forest to make way for other uses. This can involve preparing the land for farming or grazing, or using the wood for construction, manufacturing, or heating.
  • Today, the tropics are where deforestation is most prevalent.
  • Reduced rainfall is a result of reduced water vapour production over the canopy in tropical areas due to deforestation.
  • In addition to destroying vegetation that is vital for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, deforestation releases greenhouse gases in the process of clearing the forests.
  • Additionally, it is harming the biodiversity and animal population.

Read Also: European Union

Source: Down To Earth

Pradhan Mantri Suryodaya Yojana

Recently, Prime Minister announced Pradhan Mantri Suryodaya Yojana under which 1 crore households will get rooftop solar power systems. India’s Status of Current Solar Capacity India currently stands at 4th place globally in solar power capacity. As per Ministry of New an

Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA)- NGO 

The Foreign Contribution Regulation Act, 2010 (FCRA) registration of two prominent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) — Centre for Policy Research (CPR) and World Vision India (WVI) have been cancelled this month. What is FCRA? Key provisions of FCRA, 2010 Key aspects Description

Voice clone-AI

Voice clone fraud has been on the rise in India. AI voice cloning – It is the process of creating a synthetic replica of a person’s voice through machine learning and speech synthesis technology.It is called as voice deepfakesor audio deepfakes. Objective – To achieve a high level of na

Science communication- how to promote

Steps taken by India to promote Science Communication Publications and Information Directorate (PID) - An organisation under Council of Science and Industrial Research (CSIR) established in 1951 for publishing and disseminating scientific information in India. National science magazines- The PI

Universal Basic Income (UBI)- Analysis

Universal Basic Income (UBI) can strengthen welfare architecture and unlock the nation’s latent demographic potential. UBI - It is an income support mechanism typically intended to reach all or a very large portion of the population regardless of their earnings or employment status. Objective- To provide enough to co


Search By Date

Newsletter Subscription
SMS Alerts

Important Links

UPSC GS Mains Crash Course - RAW Prelims Answer Key 2024