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  • 17 January, 2023

  • 5 Min Read



  • Kenya has recently seen an antimicrobial-resistant gonorrhoea outbreak.
  • According to specialists, the region as a whole is at risk from the Neisseria gonorrhoeae outbreak, not just the residents of the East African anchor state.
  • Health professionals are extremely concerned about the outbreak, especially since it is occurring while WHO works to eradicate sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as a public health issue by 2030.

About Gonorrhea:

  • The bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the source of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) known as gonorrhoea.
  • It can affect the genitalia, rectum, and throat and can affect both males and women.
  • Gonorrhea can result in major health issues, such as infertility and an elevated risk of HIV infection if it is not treated.
  • It is, after Chlamydia, the second most common sexually transmitted illness worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • Antibiotics are commonly used to treat gonorrhoea, however many of the once-potent medications are no longer effective against the infection.
  • The doctors claimed that sex workers' samples from Nairobi, the country's capital, and other urban regions like Kiambu County were where the drug-resistant super gonorrhoea was first found.

About Anti-Microbial Resistance (AMR):

  • Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is a condition in which bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites evolve over time and cease to respond to antibiotics, making infections more difficult to cure and raising the risk of disease transmission, life-threatening sickness, and death.
  • Additionally, bacteria that become resistant to antibiotics are frequently referred to as "superbugs."
  • According to a study published in 2019 more people die each year from diseases caused by microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics than from malaria or HIV/AIDS combined.
  • Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest problems confronting humanity, according to experts.
  • By 2050, they project that 10 million people will have perished as a result of the issue if it is not resolved.
  • Antibiotics kill bacteria from the inside out by attaching to a specific target protein on the organism.
  • Mutations that enable bacteria to prevent medications from binding to them are the most frequent means by which bacteria avoid antibiotics.
  • The worst case scenario is when bacteria develop multiple of these backup mechanisms, meaning that even if you manage to overcome one, additional resistances may step in to fill the void.


  • Antibiotic resistance is brought on by microorganisms that have adapted to resist antibiotics. The main causes of resistance are antibiotic overuse and misuse.
  • In other words, the problem of antibiotic resistance gets worse the more antibiotics we use.
  • Insufficient sanitation and hygiene, as well as poor infection control.
  • Antimicrobial overuse and recurrent use of low-quality medications.
  • Mutations in the bacteria's genes.

Anti-Microbial Resistance Control Measures in India:

  • National Programme on AMR containment: Launched in 2012. Under this programme, AMR Surveillance Network has been strengthened by establishing labs in State Medical College.
  • National Action Plan on AMR: It was introduced in April 2017 with the goal of involving numerous stakeholder ministries/departments and focuses on the One Health concept.
  • AMR Surveillance Network: In order to gather data and track trends and patterns of drug-resistant illnesses across the nation, ICMR developed the AMR surveillance and research network (AMRSN) in 2013.
  • AMR Research & International Collaboration: In order to further medical research into AMR, ICMR has made steps to create novel treatments and medicines through international partnerships.
  • Antibiotic Stewardship Program: To prevent the abuse and overuse of antibiotics in hospital wards and intensive care units (ICUs), the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has launched the Antibiotic Stewardship Program (AMSP) as a pilot initiative across India.

Source: Down To Earth

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