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  • 14 November, 2022

  • 6 Min Read

Assessment of the Dynamic Ground Water Resource 2022

Assessment of the Dynamic Ground Water Resource, 2022

The Dynamic Ground Water Resource Assessment Report for the entire nation for the year 2022 was just released by the Union Minister of Jal Shakti.

What are the Assessment's Findings?

  • The annual groundwater extraction is 239.16 BCM, while the total annual groundwater recharge is 437.60 BCM.
  • According to the assessment, groundwater recharge has increased.
  • The annual groundwater recharge was 436 bcm while the annual groundwater extraction was 245 bcm, according to a 2020 assessment.
  • When water from the earth's surface seeps below and collects in aquifers, the process is known as groundwater recharge. The procedure is therefore also referred to as deep drainage or deep percolation.
  • According to the 2022 assessment, groundwater extraction is at its lowest level since 2004, when it reached 231 bcm.
  • In addition, 1006 of the country's total of 7089 assessment units have been labelled as "over-exploited."
  • The usage of irrigation accounts for around 87% of the total annual groundwater extraction, or 208.49 bcm. Only 30.69 bcm, or roughly 13% of the total extraction, is for domestic and industrial usage.

State-by-state extraction of groundwater

  • 60.08% of the nation's groundwater is currently being extracted.
  • In the states of Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, and Daman & Diu, where it is more than 100%, the stage of ground water extraction is exceptionally high.
  • The stage of ground water extraction varies between 60 and 100% in the states of Delhi, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, and the UTs of Chandigarh, Lakshadweep, and Puducherry.
  • The level of ground water extraction is below 60% in the remaining states.

What is the situation with India's groundwater?

  • With a fourth of the world's withdrawals, India is the greatest groundwater user. About 48% of the water used in Indian cities comes from groundwater.
  • In India, there are more than 4,400 statutory towns and cities, and there are already 400 million people living there. By 2050, that number could rise to 300 million.

Groundwater Depletion Problems

  • By 2050, an estimated 3.1 billion people may experience seasonal water shortages and nearly a billion may experience perennial water shortages as a result of uncontrolled groundwater and growing population.
  • Even though there has been good infrastructural development, there will still be problems with water and food security, which will increase poverty in the cities.

What problems does India's groundwater management face?

Illicit extraction

  • The extraction of groundwater, which is referred to as a "common pool resource," has historically been subject to little regulation.
  • Groundwater extraction has increased during the past few decades, driven by a growing population, urbanisation, and expansion of irrigation activities.

Extravagant Irrigation

  • Groundwater irrigation, which gained popularity in the 1970s, has improved socioeconomic well-being, productivity, and means of subsistence.

Lack of understanding of groundwater management systems

  • The imbalance between local demand and supply accounts for a sizable portion of the issue in India.
  • Two less obvious causes of this problem include an increasing population and unrestrained urban expansion.
  • For instance, a population with better economic standing may have a greater need for water distribution and supply.

Groundwater contamination

  • According to statistics on water quality gathered by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), there is arsenic pollution in the groundwater in as many as 154 districts spread across 21 states.
  • Accounts of anthropogenic activities and geogenic sources have significantly lower quality.
  • As the concentration of heavy metals in the earth's crust is higher than on the surface, this further boosts the amount of contamination.

Climate Change:

  • The country has endured climate shocks, which have worsened the cumulative effect of all the issues outlined above.
  • The difficulties India's groundwater challenges contribute to the deterioration of the climate catastrophe, which exacerbates the problems with groundwater supplies.
  • The quality and quantity of groundwater are negatively impacted by disruptions in the hydrological cycle that result in protracted periods of flooding and drought.
  • For instance, flood events raise the possibility of increased chemical and biological contamination of groundwater.

What initiatives has the government taken?

  • Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABY): It is a Rs. 6000 crore Central Sector Scheme for sustainable management of groundwater resources with community involvement, funded by the World Bank.
  • Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA): It was started in 2019 to improve groundwater conditions and water availability in 256 water-stressed districts across the nation.
  • It places a focus on revitalising traditional water sources, building recharge systems, heavily afforestation, etc.
  • The CGWB has been involved with the Aquifer Mapping and Management Programme.
  • The program's goal is to identify aquifer types and characterise them so that aquifer- and area-specific groundwater management plans may be created with community input.
  • Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT): The Mission's development of fundamental urban infrastructure, including water supply, sewerage & septage management, stormwater drainage, green spaces & parks, and non-motorized urban transportation, is a priority in the AMRUT cities.

Way Forward

  • Integrated Water Resource Management Framework: The Integrated Water Resource Management framework needs to be emphasised. It encourages the coordinated management of resources related to water, land, and other relevant resources.
  • Adopting Water Sensitive Urban Design: First off, by managing groundwater, surface water, and rainwater for water demand and supply, water-sensitive urban design and planning can contribute to the maintenance of the water cycle.

Read Also: Renewable Energy in India – Facts and Future prospect

Source: Newsonair

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