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  • 03 January, 2023

  • 7 Min Read

Bad Bank & NPA

Bad Bank & NPA

  • The Finance Minister recently informed the Parliament that banks had written off bad loans totaling Rs 10,09,511 crore during the previous five fiscal years.

What is a bad bank?

  • By removing bad loans from banks' balance sheets and allowing them to lend to clients again without restrictions, bad banks are intended to lessen the pressure on banks.
  • The bad bank may later attempt to restructure and sell the NPA to investors who might be interested in buying it after purchasing a bad loan from a bank.
  • If a bad bank is able to sell a loan for more than it paid for it when it bought it from a commercial bank, it will turn a profit from its activities.

What Benefits and Drawbacks Does a Bad Bank Offer?


  • It may be possible to group all of the banks' defaulted loans into a single exclusive company.
  • In the past, nations including the United States, Germany, Japan, and others have experimented with the concept of a bad bank.
  • In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the U.S. Treasury established the troubled asset rescue program, popularly known as TARP, which was based on the concept of a bad bank.

Utilization of Unrestricted Capital:

  • A bad bank can assist in unlocking capital of more than Rs 5 lakh crore that banks have locked in as provisions against these bad loans by removing bad loans from the accounts of problematic banks.


  • Government-backed bad banks will essentially transfer troubled assets from public sector banks, which are owned by the government, to bad banks, which are once more owned by the government.
  • These institutions face essentially the same problem, there is no reason to think that a simple transfer of assets from one pocket of the government to another will result in a successful resolution of these bad debts.
  • Public sector banks are run by bureaucrats who may not always be as committed to guaranteeing these lenders' profitability as private sector banks, which are owned by people with strong financial incentives to manage them well.
  • In that sense, saving banks through a bad bank accomplishes little to solve the crisis caused by bad loans.
  • Risk of Moral Hazard: Commercial banks that receive bailout money from a bad bank are probably unlikely to change their methods.
  • After all, the safety net a bad bank offers provides these lenders greater justification to make risky loans, which worsens the bad loan situation.


  • In 2009, the RBI released guidelines that outlined different NPA classifications and what banks had to do when these defaulted loans grew older.
  • The process of NPA recognition was launched by the RBI's master circular in 2009.
  • It specifies that if an item has been "doubtful" for a predetermined amount of time, the asset's worth must be paid for in portions as it ages.
  • 2014–15: From 2014 to 2015, India became stricter about classifying loans as "bad."
  • It was established to conduct periodic asset quality reviews.
  • RBI intervened to stop loans from being "evergreened."
  • It entails increasing the amount of debt owed on a stressed asset in the hopes that it would recover.
  • 2021: A change in 2021 increased the standards for recognition.
  • Banks are required to make provisions based on the risk element for that industry, even if the asset is typical and has no issues.
  • Similar to how house loans with teaser rates are riskier than those without. As a result, arrangements must be made for these loans.
  • In the Union Budget for 2021–2022, a National Asset Reconstruction Company Ltd. (NARCL) was proposed to settle stressed loans totaling approximately 2 lakh crore in stages.

What is a non-performing asset?

  • Loans or advances that are in default or are behind on planned principal or interest payments are categorized as NPAs.
  • The majority of the time, debt is categorized as non-performing when loan payments have been missed for at least 90 days.
  • Gross non-performing assets are the total of all defaulted loans made by borrowers who obtained loans from the financial institution.
  • The amount realized after the provision amount has been subtracted from the gross non-performing assets is known as net non-performing assets.

Causes and difficulties with Non-Performing Assets (NPA):

  • Rerouting of funds: The promoters of the companies are moving the money in another direction.
  • Putting money into unsuccessful projects: High NPAs are the outcome of banks trying to finance unviable projects.
  • Ineffective collection efforts against late-paying customers.
  • Delayed judicial action: Even if an NPA is fully acknowledged in a given year, it is possible that even the quickest legal proceedings do not result in full recovery.
  • Delays in post-haircut payments: Banks may experience delays in post-haircut payments in addition to hefty recovery haircuts.

Financial Operations Affected by NPAs:

  • Banks' profits decline.
  • This lowers the capital adequacy of a bank or other financial organisation.
  • The banks are now reluctant to make loans and assume 100% risk. Therefore, it is prohibited to create new credit.
  • Instead of focusing on growing their businesses, banks prioritize managing credit risk.

Way Forward

  • The administration of public sector banks will continue to lack professionalism as long as they are dependent on politicians and bureaucrats, which will negatively affect prudential lending standards.
  • A bad bank is therefore a fine idea, but the real difficulty is in addressing the underlying structural issues in the financial system and proposing adjustments in line with them.

Source: Times Of India

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