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DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS

  • 01 February, 2022

  • Min Read

Difference between Petroleum, Natural Gas, LNG, LPG and H-CNG

Difference between Petroleum, Natural Gas, LNG, LPG and H-CNG

Petroleum / Mineral oil

Natural Gas

  1. Found in sedimentary rocks of marine origin
  2. Formed by decomposition of tiny marine creatures, plants & vegetation under mud, silt & sand. Over the years, it undergoes chemical changes to form crude oil & natural gas under the action of heat & pressure.
  3. 20 % of India’s crude oil & gas demand is produced domestically & 80 % is imported from (UAE, Saudi, Iran, Russia).
  4. Jamnagar Refineries of Reliance industries is world largest refinery complex.
  5. HPCL is a Navratna company. It has 2 refineries - Mumbai and Vishakhapatnam.
  1. NG is odorless, colorless gas made of variety of compounds but methane is the most imp. It is found in association with mineral oil (75% is in Bombay High and Bassein).
  2. NG gas 70-90% Methane, Ethane, Propane and Butane (0-20% combined), CO2, Oxygen, Nitrogen, H2S and Trace gases like (A, He, Ne, Xe).
  3. 40% Goes to Chemical fertilizers, 30% (Power generation) and 10% LPG.

Compressed Natural Gas

Liquified Natural Gas

  • CNG is obtained by compressing NG under high pressure. Reduces its volume.
  • Advantages
    • Viable alternative fuel (Storage cylinders)
    • Cheaper and reduce emissions.
    • Versatile and low storage costs.
    • Cleaner solution from diesel
  • Disadvantages
    • Explosion ka risk.
    • Infra support needed.
  • Applications: Buses, Trucks.
  • >90% is Methane and 3-4% is Ethane.
  • CNG is also very light, so if there is a leak, it will dissipate rapidly into air but LPG will settle on ground. This makes CNG a safer choice over LNG. CNG releases less GHGs.

Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas (H-CNG)

  • The blending of hydrogen with CNG provides a blended gas termed as HCNG. HCNG combines the advantages of both hydrogen and methane.
  • Delhi will be the first city in the country to roll out HCNG buses for public transport from November 2020.
  • This is a step towards combating air pollution.
  • LNG is produced by cooling NG to - 162 degree C in Cryogenic stage through Liquifaction. Kept in liquid form to increase quantities of NG that can be stored in tanks.
  • Advantages
    1. Easy to transport.
    2. Helps in electrification.
    3. Clean burning fuel, smoke free, less CO2 than Coal, no black carbon.
  • Disadvantages: Explosion and Infra.
  • Application: Business, Industry, Power generation, Cooking.
  • LNG takes less storage space than CNG.

LPG

  • is a byproduct derived while extracting crude petroleum. It has Propane and Butane. It produces CO2, NOx and CO and is much cleaner than Gasoline. Heavier than air hence it will settle down on leakage.

The Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB)

  • The Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) was constituted under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006 .
  • The objective of PNGRB is to protect the interests of consumers and entities engaged in specified activities relating to petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas and to promote competitive markets and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • PNGRB authorises the CGD networks, natural gas and petroleum product pipelines, determines tariff, lays down the technical and safety standards etc.

India's first Hydrogen blended Natural Gas Project in Indore, India

  • Gas Authority of India Limited has commenced India’s first-of-it’s-kind project of mixing hydrogen into natural gas system at Indore, Madhya Pradesh. The hydrogen blended natural gas will be supplied to Avantika Gas Limited, one of GAIL’s Joint Venture (JV) Company with HPCL, operating in Indore.
  • In line with the National Hydrogen Mission, GAIL has started hydrogen blending as a pilot project to establish the techno-commercial feasibility of blending hydrogen in City Gas Distribution (CGD) network.
  • This project marks the stepping stone of India’s journey towards hydrogen based and carbon neutral future.
  • GAIL started injection of grey hydrogen at City Gate Station (CGS), Indore. This grey hydrogen would subsequently be replaced by green hydrogen. GAIL has already obtained necessary regulatory permissions to commence the project. GAIL has also engaged domain experts to carry out the impact assessment of blending of hydrogen in natural gas.

Source: PIB


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