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  • 10 November, 2022

  • 6 Min Read

Form Waste-to-Energy

Form Waste-to-Energy

The Central Government recently released rules for implementing its waste-to-energy program, opening the door for businesses to produce biogas, bio CNG, and electricity from trash and leftovers from urban, industrial, and agricultural sources.

About the Waste-to-Energy Program:

  • The National Bioenergy Program was initiated by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).
  • MNRE has continued the National Bioenergy Programme for the period from FY 2021-22 to 2025-26.
  • It consists of the following sub-scheme:


  • Energy from Waste Program: (Programme on Energy from Urban, Industrial and Agricultural Wastes /Residues) to support setting up of large Biogas, BioCNG and Power plants (excluding MSW to Power projects).
  • The Biomass Program: Scheme to Support the Manufacturing of Briquettes and Pellets and promote Biomass (non-bagasse) Based Cogeneration in Industries supports the establishment of projects using non-bagasse-based power generation as well as the production of pellets and briquettes for use in power generation.
  • Biogas Program: To assist in the establishment of small- to medium-sized biogas in rural areas.

Implementing Agency:

  • After the plants are commissioned, IREDA will receive a service fee of 1% of the Central Financial Assistance (CFA) to process applications and an additional 1% of the CFA (minimum of 50,000) to execute and monitor the performance.

Financial Support:

  • The Center would offer new biogas plants financial support of Rs 75 lakh per MW and existing units financial support of Rs 50 lakh per MW.
  • The eligible CFA will be 20% higher than the typical CFA pattern if the waste-to-energy facilities are built in special category states such the North East, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Lakshadweep, Uttarakhand, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

What are BioCNG and Biogas?


  • It mostly consists of hydrocarbons, which are flammable and may burn to produce heat and energy.
  • Certain bacteria transform biological wastes into usable bio-gas through a biochemical process, which produces biogas.
  • The usable gas is known as bio-gas since it results from a biological process.
  • The main component of biogas is methane gas.
  • Unlike compressed natural gas (CNG), which is a non-renewable energy source, biogas can be purified to create bio-CNG, a fuel that can be used in place of it. When bacteria break down organic material, such as food, crop residue, wastewater, etc., biogas is created.
  • It is a cleaner alternative to fuels like gasoline and diesel and is similar to natural gas in terms of composition and qualities.

What Advantages Do Bio Energy Offer?

Cities with zero pollution

  • Our cities may become clean and pollution-free with the help of the biogas solution.
  • The groundwater is contaminated by the leaching of harmful materials from landfills.
  • Methane, a particularly potent GHG, is released in enormous quantities as a result of the decomposition of organic waste, contributing to air pollution and global warming.

Handling Organic Waste:

  • By installing extensive municipal biogas systems, towns can effectively handle organic waste and get past the socioeconomic and environmental problems brought on by overburdened landfills.
  • Municipal garbage can be fed into these facilities to produce biofertilizers, clean, green fuel, and other products while maintaining clean, sanitary communities.

Beneficial to Women:

  • Women may benefit from switching to biogas because they won't be exposed to hazardous smoke and pollutants.
  • Female household members are particularly susceptible to indoor pollution since they spend more time indoors.

Will Change Dependence on Energy:

  • Rural and agricultural populations, who mostly rely on burning wood, dung, charcoal, coal, and other fossil fuels for their energy needs, can significantly reduce their reliance on fossil fuels by switching to biogas.
  • The main reason for the nation's persistent energy issues is its significant reliance on non-renewable resources.

What are the government's initiatives to support waste management and biogas production?

For Biogas:

The SATAT Plan

  • Plans have been developed by the Indian government and Niti Aayog to promote LNG, hydrogen, and methanol to speed up the switch to greener fuels.

For Waste Management:

National Dashboard on Elimination of Single-Use Plastic and Plastic Waste Management:

  • India launched a nationwide awareness campaign on Single Use Plastics on World Environment Day in June 2022.
  • A mobile app for Single Use Plastics (SUP) Grievance Redressal was also launched to empower citizens to check the sale/usage/manufacturing of SUP in their area and tackle the plastic menace.

Project REPLAN:

  • Project REPLAN (stands for REducing PLastic in Nature) launched by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) aims to reduce the consumption of plastic bags by providing a more sustainable alternative.

Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016

Source: PIB

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