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DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS

  • 25 February, 2023

  • 5 Min Read

Gut Microbiome link To Autism

Gut Microbiome link To Autism

  • A study was done to determine how the gut microbiome and autism spectrum disease are related (ASD).
  • It has been discovered that human gut microbiome makeup is linked to several disorders, including autism, Crohn's disease, and others.
  • The bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses that inhabit human digestive tracts are known as the gut microbiome or gut microbiota. These microorganisms have an impact on the body from birth and throughout life by regulating digestion, the immune system, the central nervous system, and other bodily functions.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD): What is it?

  • A range of neurodevelopmental abnormalities are collectively referred to as autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
  • One in 100 kids have ASD, according to the WHO. Children with ASD have trouble interacting with others, struggle with verbal and nonverbal communication, and engage in repetitive and constrained behaviours.
  • One's cognitive capacities may be negatively impacted by these traits, which over time may lower one's quality of life.
  • ASD cannot currently be treated or reversed by therapeutic methods or recognised remedies.
  • The causative agents of ASD are still not fully understood by researchers. Yet, they are starting to discover that a problem with the gut-brain axis may play a significant role.
  • The study of the factors that contribute to a condition or disease is known as aetiology.
  • It is a complex developmental impairment of the brain that manifests itself throughout the first three years of life.
  • While persons with autism can display exceptional skills in fields like art, music, writing, etc., it is not a sign of mental impairment. Individuals with ASDs have a wide range of intellectual functioning, from severe impairment to excellent levels.

Causes:

  • Environmental and genetic variables, among others, may increase a child's risk of developing an ASD.

What is the relationship between ASD and the gut microbiome?

  • The modulation of the immune system and metabolic processes in the human body are thought to be significantly influenced by the gut microbiome. Immune modulation is the process through which the immune system tries to make sure that the reaction it produces is appropriate for the threat.
  • The gut microbiome and ASD symptoms may be related, according to the study. In children with ASD, they discovered dysbiosis, or an imbalance, in the gut flora.
  • These results led the researchers to the conclusion that restoring gut microbiome balance and treating gut dysbiosis in ASD children could help them with a variety of issues and enhance their quality of life.
  • The human microbiome, frequently referred to as the "lost organ," is important for a variety of host activities, including physiology, nutrition, growth, and disease.
  • The modulation of the immune system and metabolic processes in the human body are thought to be significantly influenced by the gut microbiome.
  • Immune modulation, among other things, refers to an immune system's efforts to make sure that its reaction is appropriate for the threat.
  • Some researchers have contested the importance of the gut microbiome by arguing that since ASD cannot be caused by the microbiome, it has a limited involvement in the pathophysiology of the disorder.
  • Hence, "fixing" the gut in ASD can lessen the toxic load, including that which crosses the blood-brain barrier, and/or assist in completing the crucial routes for neurotransmitter synthesis.

What ASD-related initiatives are there?

  • The Sustainable Development Goals and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (UNCRPD) both address the rights of individuals with disabilities, including autism.
  • The number of disability kinds has expanded from 7 to 21 as a result of the Right of People with Disabilities Act, 2016. Along with other conditions that were mostly disregarded in prior Acts, it also includes autism spectrum disorder.
  • More than 60 nations backed a resolution that the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted in 2014 titled "Comprehensive and coordinated efforts for the management of ASD."
  • The 2nd of April was unanimously designated as International Autism Awareness Day by the UN General Assembly in 2008.

Source: The Hindu


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