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  • 05 September, 2022

  • 8 Min Read

India fifth largest economy

India: fifth largest economy

India recently overtook the UK to take over as the fifth-largest economy in the world.

Image source - Indianexpress

Important Points

India overtook the UK to take over as the world's fifth-largest economy in the final quarter of 2021.

India increased its lead in the first quarter of the computation, which is based on US dollars, according to IMF GDP data.

India vs. the UK

  • The nominal cash size of the Indian economy in the quarter through March was $854.7 billion on an adjusted basis and using the dollar exchange rate on the last day of the relevant quarter.
  • The UK was $816 billion based on the same figures.
  • With the pound losing 8% against the rupee this year, sterling has underperformed the dollar relative to the Indian currency.
  • Impact on the UK: For the next Prime Minister, the UK's slide down international rankings is an undesirable backdrop.
  • The country is dealing with the nation's greatest inflation rate in four decades as well as growing recession risks, which the Bank of England predicts might persist well beyond 2024.

India's Development

  • This year, the Indian economy is anticipated to expand by more than 7%.
  • Indian equities have recently recovered, and as a result, their position in the MSCI Emerging Markets Index has risen to the second slot, behind only China's.
  • According to the IMF's forecast, India will pass the UK in dollar terms annually this year, leaving the Asian powerhouse just behind the US, China, Japan, and Germany.
  • India was the eleventh-largest economy ten years ago, while the UK was the fifth-largest.

Comparison and Problems

  • One of the most important contrasts between the two countries is their population sizes.
  • India will have 1.41 billion people as of 2022, compared to the UK's 68.5 million people.
  • In other words, India’s population is 20 times that of the UK’s.
  • It seems unlikely that this gap will be closed quickly.
  • GDP per capita: Since there is such a large disparity in the size of the two countries' populations, dividing a country's GDP by its population makes for a more accurate comparison of income levels.
  • Unsurprisingly, the ordinary Indian's salary is far lower.

Human Development Index:

  • The health, education and standard of living indicators that make up the Human Development Index are combined.
  • India's position on the HDI contrasts with the UK's.
  • Despite its secular progress, India may still require ten years to catch up to the UK in 1980.

Universal Healthcare Coverage (UHC):

  • The UHC Index is based on the average coverage of key services such as reproductive, maternity, neonatal, and child health, infectious illnesses, non-communicable diseases, service capacity, and access, and is scaled from 0 (worst) to 100 (best).
  • There is still a long way to go, even if India's faster economic growth and the government's policy focus on healthcare programs since 2005 have made a noticeable improvement.

Way Forward

  • Increasing Government Spending: Increasing the combined tax-to-GDP ratio is a necessary condition for increasing the size of government spending as a percentage of GDP. Furthermore, by the middle of the 2030s, the combined expenditure on health and education should reach 3% and 6% of GDP, respectively, before increasing to roughly 5%.
  • A balanced fiscal policy should also ensure that the total government revenue accounts are in balance and that all capital receipts, including fiscal deficits for capital expenditures, are utilised.
  • Technology Adoption: Investing in education and technical skills would hasten India's adoption of foreign technologies, hence boosting the growth-promoting effects of technology.
  • Data from the International Labour Organization (ILO) show that India's female labour force participation rate has been dropping recently. According to ILO predictions, this rate could drop as low as 18.6% in 2020. Women's participation in productive activities may actually rise if the emphasis is placed on their health and education.
  • Increased savings and investment: A positive feedback loop of increased per capita income, decreased dependency ratio, and increased female earnings in the family may encourage increased savings and investment, and subsequently growth.

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Source: The Indian Express

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