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  • 05 August, 2022

  • 15 Min Read



Recently, the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (Isak-Muivah) marked the 25 years of ceasefire with the Government of India.

About ceasefire

Naga peace process

  • The Naga region initially remained a part of Assam after India gained independence in 1947.
  • The Naga Hills region of Assam and the Tuensang frontier division to the northeast were combined under a single unit directly governed by the Indian government in 1957 after an agreement was made between Naga leaders and the Indian government.
  • Although Nagaland became a state in 1963, insurgent activities persisted.

Reason for armed insurgency

  • Diverse tribal & ethnic groups: Ethno-communal disputes, native vs immigrant populations, and dominant tribal groupings (Nagas raising, NSCN (IM) & (K), ULFA, etc.) are some examples.
  • Conflict causes rooted in history: There are many Tibeto-Burman/Mongoloid tribes with historical ties to one another (Ethnically, linguistically & culturally very distinct.)
  • Physical limitations: Mountains make it challenging for security forces to monitor borders.
  • Governance problems: Lack of a political-administrative structure, corruption, ties between political parties and armed opposition organizations, and No law and order.
  • Armaments’ availability and porous borders: lead to illegal immigration and the trafficking of narcotics and arms (Golden Triangle).
  • Developmental challenges: These include issues with poverty, unemployment, poor connection, feelings of neglect, and a lack of FDI.

Impact of insurgency

  • Internal displacement of the population: Hindus and Muslims of Bengali ancestry who have been uprooted from and within Assam are examples of internal population displacement.

The eviction of Bodos and Adivasis (Tea Tribes) from and inside Western Assam, the eviction of Paites, Kukis, and Nagas from Manipur.

  • Laws Used Arbitrarily: There are strong repercussions if common-law crimes are not distinguished from insurgency-related crimes.

Shortcuts exist in the criminal investigation and trial processes. Police use the National Security Act to hold people in custody or to kill them in fictitious confrontations.

  • Child Education Disruption: There is a significant migration of school-age children from the area, which causes a significant outflow of money from the area.
  • Sense of Insecurity: Frequent incidents of kidnapping, death, threat, and extortion; frequent abuses of human rights by both the rebels and the security forces; and fear of psychosis have all contributed to a persistent sense of unease.
  • Politicians and rebels Nexus: When elected officials stop serving as the people's representatives, they are no longer held responsible and accountable by the electorate but rather by the rebels who orchestrated their victory.
  • Diversion of Funds: Insurgents siphon off and steal significant amounts of money intended for development projects.


  • Political, governmental, and cultural independence: The construction of a virtual state for the Nagas outside the borders of Nagaland state can be taken into consideration by the central government while protecting India's territorial integrity as a nation-state comes first.
  • Learning from successful International Examples: Colombia offers indigenous groups a significant degree of political and administrative autonomy, and the majority-Swedish-speaking population in Finland is given cultural and political autonomy while in the land Islands.
  • Repeal AFSPA: The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act must be repealed by the Indian government as the first step toward real progress. It represents a significant barrier to any political agreement with the Naga insurgents. Building trust in the peace process will be greatly aided by making this concession to the Naga.
  • Give people power and trust them to use it: When the time is right to negotiate a new deal, the people of the northeast need to decide the outcome of this struggle.
  • This strategy necessitates communication between representatives of the Naga and the state governments in the northeast.

Source: The Hindu

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