22 October, 2019
The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) released its 2017 data for crime in India on October 21.
What are the categories of the data?
The NCRB has introduced more than three dozen new categories and sub-categories of crimes under various heads.
At least four categories where significant diversification of data can be seen are –
Crimes against women and children
Atrocities against Dalits
Cases of corruption
Time taken by police and courts to take cases to their conclusion
For the first time, the NCRB has introduced categories of cyber crimes against women and children.
In the case of Dalits, the NCRB has for the first time published data on offences registered solely under the SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.
The further categorisation under this includes insult, land grab and social ostracism.
The NCRB has also recorded cases of disproportionate assets against public servants.
The other heads include abetment, criminal intimidation, simple hurt, credit/debit card and online frauds, Internet crimes through online gaming and kidnapping for begging among others.
Importantly, for the first time, the NCRB has dwelt on not just pendency of cases (with the police and courts) but also the period of such pendency.
KEY FINDINGS OF THE REPORT:
The data, delayed by about a year, presents some interesting findings.
Data that was supposed to be published under the new sub-heads of mob lynching, murder by influential people, killing ordered by khap panchayats and murder committed for religious reasons is missing.
A new category of offences under the aegis of "Anti-National Elements",shows that the maximum number of offences were committed by Left Wing Extremist (LEW) operatives, insurgents in the Northeast and terrorists.
Crime Registration and Rate:
In 2017, there was an increase of 3.6% in registration of cases over 2016.
Delhi witnessed the highest crime rate in the country with 1,050 Indian Penal Code (IPC) crime incidents per lakh of the city’s population.
This was over four times the national average of 238.
Crime Against Women:
The number of crimes committed against women increased by 6% over the year 2016.
Majority cases were registered under ‘Cruelty by Husband or His Relatives’ followed by ‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’.
The maximum cases were registered in Uttar Pradesh (UP) followed by Maharashtra and West Bengal.
Crime Against SC/STs:
The incidents registered under the Scheduled Caste Prevention of Atrocities Act saw an increase from 5,082 incidents reportedin 2016 to 5,775 in 2017.
Incidents of crime related to Scheduled Tribes dipped from 844 in 2016 to 720 in 2017.
Out of the total 58,880 incidents of rioting reported, communal and sectarian riots accounted for 723 and 183 incidents respectively.
There were 805 riots due to caste conflict and 1909 riots due to political reasons.
Maximum incidents were reported from Bihar, followed by Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.
Fraudulent transactions and sexual exploitationwere the most reported cyber crimes in India in 2017.
Cyber fraudsaccounted for the highest number of individual reports on cybercrime, followed by cases of cybercrime in the form of sexual exploitation.
Assam,which has recorded higher number of cyber crimes than other states in the region, sexual exploitation and personal revenge were the prime reasons.
Bengaluru topped the listamong metropolitan cities across the country in terms of number of cyber crimes registered.
Bengaluru was followed by Mumabi and Jaipur.
Offences against the state:
As compared to 2016, there has been a 30 percent rise in incidents of offences against the state. Sedition, waging war against country and damage to public property are among the offences included under this category.
Interestingly, the maximum number of such offences were recorded from Haryana while the minimum number of such cases were recorded from Jammu and Kashmir(J&K).
Haryana registered 13 cases of sedition— second after Assam, which registered 19— while only one case of sedition was recorded in J&K.
NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators. It was set up based on the recommendation of the Task force,1985 and National Police Commission,1977 by merging the Directorate of Coordination and Police Computer (DCPC), Inter State Criminals Data Branch of CBI and Central Finger Print Bureau of CBI. Earlier Statistical Branch of Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D) was also merged with NCRB, but was later de-merged.
To Empower Indian Police with Information Technology and criminal Intelligence to enable them to uphold law and protect people. To provide leadership and excellence in crime analysis particularly for serious and organized crime.
Create and maintain secure sharable National Databases on crimes and criminals for law enforcement agencies and promote their use for public service delivery.
Collect and process crime statistics at the national level and clearing house of information on crime and criminals both at National and International levels.
Lead and coordinate development of IT applications and create an enabling IT environment for Police organizations.
National repository of fingerprints of all criminals.
To evaluate, modernize and promote automation in State Crime Records Bureaux and State Finger Print Bureaux .
Training and capacity building in Police Forces in Information Technology and Finger Print Science.
Source: THE HINDU
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