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DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS

  • 18 August, 2022

  • 11 Min Read

Reforms in United Nations

Reforms in United Nations

At the Moscow Conference on International Security-2022's plenary session recently, the defence minister pushed for UN reforms.

About General Assembly and United Nations Security Council

General Assembly

  • In addition to the Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice, and UN Secretariat, it is one of the six main institutions of the UN.
  • It is sometimes referred to as the United Nations Organization's parliament.
  • A two-thirds majority is required to adopt some decisions, including those regarding the budget, membership expansion, and peace and security. Other choices merely need a simple majority to be made.

United Nations Security Council

  • It is one of the United Nations Organization's six main bodies.
  • The principal duty of this organization is to maintain world peace and security.
  • There are 15 countries five as permanent power holders and the rest 10 temporary members elected for two years.
  • Permanent participants are known as the P-5 members. It is made up of the US, Russia, China, France, and the UK. They have a veto power, which essentially implies that all five P5 members must agree for a resolution to be adopted by the UNSC.
  • There are ten temporary members. They are each given a two-year term after being chosen by the General Assembly.

What makes India a potential candidate for UNSC membership?

  • Membership: In addition to being a full member of the G77, India is also a part of the G7 and G20.
  • Interests of developing nations: India has cordial strategic, economic, political, and cultural ties with the majority of the G7 nations, but it also speaks up in favour of developing nations' interests.

Global advantages:

  • India has demonstrated leadership abilities for the global advantages by actively working toward achieving climate targets herself, without waiting for everyone else to join.
  • "Made for the world" is added to even the idea of "Make in India."
  • India's talent and skill base is a recognized worldwide advantage.
  • The recent disruption of the global supply chain, the pandemic, climate change, renewable energy, and now the looming food issue, as well as the security situation in some regions of the world, all call for and demand that India plays a stronger role in international affairs and collaboration.

Equal world order:

  • To sustain democratic ideals on a global scale, a more equitable world order is required.

Pressure from G4 members:

  • As a part of the G4—a grouping of Brazil, Germany, Japan, and India—all of whom are vying for permanent representation on the UN Security Council, India has been pursuing a seat on the body.

Supporters:

  • The United States, the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Federation all favour India and the other G4 nations receiving permanent seats.

India makes a number of assertions to support its demand.

  • India is the largest liberal democracy and the country with the second-largest population in the world.
  • As of 2020, it has the fifth-largest economy overall and the third-largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity.
  • After Bangladesh and Pakistan, all three countries in South Asia, India is the largest donor of troops to UN peacekeeping missions, with 7,860 people stationed in 10 UN Peacekeeping Missions as of 2014.
  • India has sent more than 180,000 soldiers, the most of any nation, to more than 43 missions, and 156 of its peacekeepers have given their lives while serving in UN missions.

Reason for demanding Permanent Member Status

  • Veto Power: P5 members alone have the ability to veto legislation. India could defend its interests by using the veto, for example, against Pakistan (just like Russia did last year over the civil war in Ukraine).
  • Prestige is connected to the pure prestige attached to becoming a permanent member of a multilateral organization The elevation of India will also be a recognition of its growing influence on the world stage and its readiness to contribute significantly to the goals of the Security Council for global stability and security.
  • Benefits of the General Assembly: India could gain from the type of majority needed to approve a resolution, requirement of UN Security Council approval, etc. as a permanent member.

Challenges

  • Major Powers' resistance to modernizing United Nations institutions misses changing geopolitical circumstances, as well as the economic and technological advancement that has taken place since 1945.
  • Lack of Political Will: Although there is a general consensus that the system has to reform, different nations perceive the need for change differently.
  • Coffee Club: Over the past six years, it has proved crucial in delaying UN Security Council reforms. It is an informal organization with 40 or so member states, most of which are middle-sized governments that oppose greater regional powers gaining permanent seats.
  • Chinese Opposition: China's status as a permanent member prevents India from progressing to that status.
  • US Withdrawal of Support: The current US Administration is departing from its prior course and refusing India's request.
  • India's socio-economic growth trajectory may be a factor in determining whether or not it should be granted permanent membership.

Way Forward

  • To serve as a global leader, the Council needs to be more inclusive of emerging nations.
  • uphold world order, security, and peace:
  • India requires a permanent seat at the organization that was established to uphold international peace, security, and order in order to play a vital and important role.
  • France and the five Nordic nations' backing for these ideas shows that they are increasingly being considered in how the rest of the world views India.
  • China has also previously hinted that if India ends its cooperation with Japan to gain access to the UN high table, it would abandon its opposition to India becoming a permanent member of the UNSC.

Also, Read - India-Gabon Relations

Source: PIB


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