22 December, 2020
4 Min Read
Irrigation is an important topic UPSC GS Paper III - Agriculture: Major crops and cropping patterns, Irrigation techniques. Many questions are also asked in UPSC Prelims.
What is the news?
A new model of minor irrigation through sub-surface porous vessels (SSPV) being developed here is set to benefit the farmers with small land holdings in the villages of the Thar desert. Experiments have indicated a higher yield of farm produce and improvement in the nutrient value of soil after the installation of frustum-shaped vessels at the mounds formed on land.
Other Traditional methods of irrigation
Traditional methods of irrigation are the oldest method used in the earlier years., which are more affordable, efficient than the modern methods. Some of these methods of irrigation are still followed today.
The traditional methods of irrigation include the following:
• Strip Irrigation Method
• Basin Irrigation Method
• Furrow Irrigation Method
• Check Basin Method
Furrow irrigation is very prominent in crops planted in rows. ‘Dol’ (meaning: to sprout) is formed along the sides of the rows and the water flows between two ‘Dols’.
If the furrow is filled, there is no need to provide water again. It is comparatively cheap but is labour-intensive. Food crops planted in large areas get a huge amount of water by this method.
Check Basin Method
It is one of the best methods of irrigation for levelled fields. The field is divided into basins according to the water capacity. A small drain connects the basin. The basin size is as per the water inflow. The topmost place in the field is the main source of water.
This method does not require any technique. Also, it is rather inexpensive. It prevents soil erosion as the rainwater stays in the basin. A large area can be efficiently irrigated by this method.
The fields are divided into strips of different sizes. The strips are constructed according to the slope. The structure of the land determines the size of the strips. It is an easy irrigation method and requires less labour.
Basin Irrigation Method
A raised platform is created around the trees and bushes. They are then connected with drains. This method is useful for irrigating trees and bushes and not suitable for crops. However, a lot of water is wasted in this method.
This is how water from the lakes, wells, and canals is carried to irrigate the fields. The traditional methods are cheaper and require less labour, but are quite inefficient. Therefore, modern methods of irrigation are implemented for better yields.
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