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159th birth anniversary of Gurudev -All about Rabindranath Tagore

159th birth anniversary of Gurudev -All about Rabindranath Tagore Context National Gallery of Modern Artwill organise the Virtual Tour titled “Gurudev – Journey of the Maestro through his visual vocabulary” from 7th May 2020 to commemorate the 159th birth anniversary of Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore Modern art of the Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), popularly known as ‘Gurudev’, was born in an affluent Family. The maestro was fascinated by the w

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (28 May 1883 – 26 February 1966) Context The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has paid tributes to Veer Savarkar on his jayanti on May 28th. "On his Jayanti, I bow to the courageous Veer Savarkar. We remember him for his bravery, motivating several others to join the freedom struggle and emphasis on social reform", the Prime Minister said. About Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Cause of Death: Fasting (Sallekhana Prayopavesa) He was commonl

1921 Malabar Rebellion

1921 Malabar Rebellion Context # Malayalam film director Aashiq Abu, on June 22, announced a new film project, Variyamkunnan, on Variyamkunnath Kunhamed Haji, the main protagonist of the Malabar Rebellion of 1921 who was executed by the British.   Why does the rebellion still stoke passions? # The Malabar Rebellion (also called the Mappila or Moplah Rebellion by the British) broke out in the southern taluks of Malabar in August 1921. # By the time the government troops c

The Mapillah uprising

The Mapillah uprising By, Mohammed Ayoob is University Distinguished Professor Emeritus of International Relations, Michigan State University Context With the centenary of the Mapillah rebellion of 1921 fast approaching, controversy has erupted over Malayalam movie projects commemorating what was arguably the greatest challenge to British rule between the great uprising of 1857 and the Quit India movement of 1942.   Conflicting narratives The controversy surroundi

Privy Purses

Privy Purses Introduction With the passage of the Indian Independence Act, of 1947, the British Government granted independence to the areas that were directly under their rule (British India) and left the choice to the princely states to decide their future course of action. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel persuaded these princely states to join Indian Union after independence. In consideration of such princely states signing the Instrument of Accession, the Government of India granted to t

Rekindle Kashmir’s lost and real connect

Rekindle Kashmir’s lost and real connect By, Amitabh Mattoo is Professor, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University Context This article talks about the contributions of various Kashmiris who aspired for a united nation with J&K as an integral part of India due to ot shared cultural and social values. Foiling ‘Operation Gibraltar’ It was on August 5, 1965 that two Kashmiri Gujjars helped to thwart one of Pakistan’s most deviou

Anniversary of Lokmanya Tilak: 100th

Anniversary of Lokmanya Tilak: 100th GS-Paper-1 History personality (PT-MAINS) Recently, the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) conducted a webinar to observe the 100th death anniversary of Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak on the 1st August 2020. Background: Born on 23rd July 1856 in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. Lawyer by profession and also known as Lokmanya Tilak. Gave the slogan of “Swaraj is my birthright an

University Grants Commission directive on history discipline

University Grants Commission directive on history discipline Introduction The recent University Grants Commission (UGC) directive framing the undergraduate history syllabus points to the involvement of ‘experts’ who are still stuck in the discipline as it was practised and taught years ago in the 1950s. Importance of history syllabus A crucial element of the discipline is its division into different periods, or periodisation. The notion of periodisation in hist

Tribal Movements in India

  Tribal Movements in India The Tribal population is conservative and is always interested in retaining the features of their society. Tribal movements were inspired by revolutionary tendencies. They tend to fight and eliminate ill-tendencies that attempt to change the structure of the tribal society. A summary of the Tribal Rebellions during British rule in India is given below. Causes of Movements Extension of settled agriculture led to influx of non tribals in the tribal a

Governor Generals and Viceroys of India

Governor Generals and Viceroys of India --Significant Events in their Rule Sl. No. Governor Generals Acts Wars/Treaties Reforms Introduced/ Established 1 Warren Hastings 1773-1785 1773 Regulating act Act of 1781- powers of jurisdiction between the governor-general-in-council and the Supreme Court at Calcutta, were clearly divided. Pitt&r

Indian National Congress Annual Sessions

Annual Sessions of Indian National Congress Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji and Dinshaw Edulji Wacha founded Indian National Congress on 28 December 1885 Year Place President Details 1885 Bombay W C Bonnerjee 1st session attended by 72 delegates 1886 Calcutta Dadabhai Naoroji National Congress and Na

Important Newspapers associated with the freedom Struggle

Important Newspapers associated with the freedom Struggle The evolution of Indian press was fraught with developmental difficulties, illiteracy, colonial constraints and repression. It disseminated the ideas of freedom and became prominent tool for freedom struggle.   Name of the Paper/journal Year and Place of Publication   Name of the Founder or Editor   Bengal Gazette

Peasant Movements

Peasant and Non-Tribal Movements during British India Name of the movement Main cause(s) Course of the movement and consequences Sanyasi Rebellion Region: Bengal Year: 1763-1800 Displaced peasants, Demobilized Soldiers, disposed Zamindars, Participated led By Sanyasis. It was made famous by Bankim Chandra Chaterjee.  In his novel: Anandmath  

1857 Revolt

1857 Revolt The revolt is a product of character and policies of colonial rule. Economic causes- The colonial policies destroyed the traditional economic fabric of Indian society. Heavy Taxation under New Revenue Settlement, Summary evictions  for non-payment of debts, Discriminatory tariff policy against Indian products, Destruction of traditional handicrafts industry, and free trade for imports but not for exports . Forfeiture of Zamindari land Absence of con

General Features of Socio religious reform movements

Socio religious reform movements Basically, there were two kinds of reform movements in the 19th century in India: Reformist- These movements responded with the time and scientific temper of the modern era.  Brahmo Samaj, the Prarthana Samaj, the Aligarh Movement. Revivalist- These movements started reviving ancient Indian traditions and thoughts and believed that the western thinking ruined Indian culture and ethos. Arya Samaj and the Deoband movement. The only differenc

Socio-Cultural Reform Movements

Survey of Socio-Cultural Reform Movements Reform Movements: Among Hindus Bengal Raja Rammohan Roy and Brahmo Samaj- Raja Rammohan Roy Believed in the modern scientific approach and principles of human dignity and social equality and aimed at political uplift of the masses through social reform. Literary Contribution: Gift to Monotheists (1809), Precepts of Jesus (1820), Translated into Bengali the Vedas and the five Upanishads to prove his conviction that ancient Hindu text

Beginning of Modern Nationalism in India

Beginning of Modern Nationalism in India The rise and growth of Indian nationalism has been traditionally explained in terms of Indian response to the stimulus generated by the British Raj through creation of new institutions, new opportunities, resources, etc. Factors in Growth of Modern Nationalism Understanding of contradictions in Indian and colonial interests People came to realize that colonial rule was the major cause of India’s economic backwardness Political

Era of Militant Nationalism

    Era of Militant Nationalism Why Militant Nationalism Grew 1. Realisation that the true nature of British rule was exploitative, and that the British India government, instead of conceding more, was taking away even what existed.             2. Growth of self-confidence and self-respect. 3. Impact of growth of education—increase in awareness and Unemployment. 4. International influences and events which demolished the myt

Indian National Congress - Foundation and the Moderate Phase

Indian National Congress - Foundation and the Moderate Phase Foundation of Indian National Congress First session held in 1885 (Bombay). Indian National Union, formed by A.O. Hume, became Indian National Congress. Foundational theories of INC and prominent believers: Safety Valve Theory —Lala Lajpat Rai Conspiracy Theory—R.P. Dutt Lightning conductor Theory—G.K. Gokhale Important leaders of Moderate Phase: Dadabhai Naoroji, Badruddin Tyabji,

First World War and Nationalist Response

First World War and Nationalist Response In the First World War (1914-1919), Britain allied with France, Russia, USA, Italy and Japan against Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey. The nationalist response to British participation in the First World War was three-fold: Moderates supported as a matter of duty; Extremists, including Tilak (who was released in June 1914), supported the war efforts in the mistaken belief that Britain would repay India’s loyalty with gratitude in th

Advent of the Europeans in India

Advent of the Europeans in India Why a Sea Route to India European economy growing rapidly, demand for luxury goods. Spirit of renaissance in the 15th-century Europe Capture of Constantinople in 1453, and Syria and Egypt later by the Ottoman Turks calling for a new route to reach India without dealing with Arabs and Turks. Venice and Genoa, too small to stand up to the Turks. Spain and Portugal aided with money and men by the North Europeans and by ships and technica

Assessment of Social Reform Movements - Positive and Negative Aspects

Assessment of Social Reform Movements - Positive and Negative Aspects Positive Aspects The orthodox sections of society could not accept the scientific ideological onslaught of the socio-religious rebels. As a result of this, the reformers were subjected to abuse, persecution, issuing of fatwas and even assassination attempts by the reactionaries. However, in spite of opposition, these movements managed to contribute towards the liberation of the individual from the conform

First Phase of Revolutionary Activities (1907-1917)

First Phase of Revolutionary Activities (1907-1917) Reasons for emergence Younger elements not ready to retreat after the decline of open phase. Leadership’s failure to tap revolutionary energies of the youth. Government repression left no peaceful avenues open for protest. Ideology Assassinate unpopular officials to strike terror and arouse people to expel the British with force; based on individual heroic actions on lines of Irish nationalists or Russian nihilist

Emergence of Gandhi

Emergence of Gandhi Why Nationalist Upsurge at End of First World War Post-War economic hardship. Expectations of Political Gains for Cooperation in the War Nationalist disillusionment with imperialism worldwide. Impact of Russian Revolution. Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms Dyarchy in provinces. Two lists—reserved and transferred—for administration. Reserved subjects to be administered by governor through executive council and transferred subjects to be admini

PIN Code History

PIN Code History Postal Index Number (PIN) completed 50 Years. About PIN code At the time of Independence, India had 23,344 post offices, most of which were located in urban areas. The postal system had to keep up with the nation's fast growth. As a result, it was first made available in India on August 15, 1972. Shriram Bhikaji Velankar, a senior member of the Posts and Telegraphs Board and additional secretary in the Union Ministry of Communications, was the person in cha


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