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Brazilian mathematician, Carolina Araujo has been conferred with ‘2020 Ramanujan Prize for Young Mathematicians’ for her significant work in algebraic geometry. It is given every year to young mathematicians who conducts outstanding research in developing nation. Her work area focuses on birational geometry, which aims to classify and describe the structure of algebraic varieties. In India, 22nd December is celebrated as National Mathematics Da

Large Hadron Collider

Large Hadron Collider GS-Paper-3: S&T– UPSC PRELIMS – Mains Application Context: Large Hadron Collider beauty Experiment. The LHCb experiment at CERN (European Council for Nuclear Research) has announced the results of their latest analysis of data. LHCb is an experiment set up to explore what happened after the Big Bang that allowed matter to survive and build the Universe we inhabit today. Fourteen billion years ago, the Universe began with a bang. Crammed within an in

CHIME Telescope

CHIME Telescope Scientists with the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) Collaboration, who include researchers at the Pune-based Tata Institute for Fundamental Research (TIFR) and the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA), have assembled the largest collection of fast radio bursts (FRBs) in the telescope’s first FRB catalogue. While catching sight of an FRB is considered a rare thing in the field of radio astronomy, prior to the CHIME project, radio a

Moral Problems Caused by Weather Modifications

Moral Problems Caused by Weather Modifications Between 2002 and 2012, China carried out more than 500,000 weather modification operations. China stated plans to expand its weather modification program in 2020, covering an area larger than 5.5 million square kilometers (more than 1.5 times the size of India), including artificial rain or snowfall. To address the problems of water scarcity, ecological collapse, and food security, many nations have studied and used cloud seeding. ???

Rooppur Nuclear Plant

Rooppur Nuclear Plant Since using the Russian ruble to pay for the building of the Rooppur nuclear facility was not currently practical, Bangladesh and Russia have agreed to utilise Chinese yuan as the method of settlement. Highlight Bangladesh is constructing the first of two nuclear power facilities together with Rosatom, the state-owned nuclear enterprise in Russia. At some point, the two reactors at the Rooppur facility, 160 km northwest of Dhaka, will continuously generat


It is a self-propelled, indigenously made deep-ocean mining vehicle. It is a part of India’s Deep Ocean Mission. Positioned at a pre-surveyed mineral-rich site, Varaha uses a high-power pressure pump system to facilitate the extraction of precious polymetallic nodules. These nodules are pumped from the ocean bed to the surface ship.

Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOFIA

It's a Boeing 747SP aircraft modified to carry a 2.7-meter (106-inch) reflecting telescope and is the world's only airborne telescope. The telescope weighs 19 tons and is mounted in the rear fuselage of the aircraft. SOFIA was designed for infrared astronomy observations in the stratosphere at altitudes of about 12 kilometers. SOFIA achieved full operational capability in 2014 and concluded its final science flight on September, 2022.

Malligyong-1 satellite

North Korea recently claims that it has successfully placed a 1st military spy satellite, Malligyong-1 into orbit. The satellite was launched on a new carrier rocket, “Chollima-1”. North Korea has also developed a class of experimental satellites called the Kwangmyongsong program.

1st spy satellite of South Korea

South Korea has recently launched its 1st spy satellite after North Korea’s recent launch. The satellite is launched using the SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket. It was the first of 5 spy satellites South Korea plans to send into space by 2025 using SpaceX. South Korea had no military reconnaissance satellites of its own in space and has partially resorted to the United States' spy satellites to monitor moves by North Korea.

Phosphorene, Cystine, and Gold (Ph-Cys-Au)

Scientists of Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST) have developed a highly fluorescent material using Phosphorene, Cystine, and Gold-Au (Ph-Cys-Au). It can be used for detecting over dosage of anti-cancer drug Methotrexate (MTX) which will has toxic effect on lungs, stomach, and heart.

Shidaowan Nuclear Plant

China starts up world's 1st 4th generation nuclear reactor, Shidaowan recently. It uses a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor with 1,150MW. 4th generation reactors can operate at higher temperatures than most other reactors, which allows them to generate both electricity and hydrogen.

Zhuque-2 rocket

The Zhuque-2 (ZQ-2) is a Chinese medium-sized, 1st methane-fueled rocket to reach orbit. The rocket can carry a payload of up to 1.5 metric tons into a 500-kilometre-orbit. The rocket is powered by liquid oxygen and liquid methane. It was launched by China-based private space technology firm LandSpace.

Pegasus spyware

Pegasus is a spyware developed by an Israeli firm, NSO Group, to infiltrate smartphones — Android and iOS and turn them into surveillance devices. It is used as a tool to track criminals and terrorists for targeted spying and not mass surveillance. A spyware is any malicious software designed to enter your computer device, gather your data, and forward it to a third-party without your consent. NSO Group has affirmed that it sells the software only


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