UPSC Courses


Science and Technology

This topic terrifies many aspirants, and for good reason. There’s no single book or resource to help one navigate this section and it all feels like one big haze. But there’s good news: the questions asked in S&T are mostly from current affairs and you are expected to have only a general understanding of the topics. You can make notes of scientific term or technology that’s frequently talked about in news for quick and easy revision in the end. For instance, these days we repeatedly encounter terms such as Artificial General Intelligence, Blockchain, Machine Learning, Crypto-currency, CRISPR-CAS9 in news, you need to learn about all these concepts.

Apart from the above, you need to learn fundamental terms and technologies used in Space (PSLV, GSLV, Cryo-Engine etc.), Nanotech, Nuclear Research (Fast breeder reactor, Uranium enrichment, Nuclear fission and fusion etc.), Defence (Cruise missile, Ballistic missile, Stealth Bomber etc.), Biotech (Gene editing, Stem Cells, GM food etc.), Communication (LIDAR, RADAR, LiFi, 5G etc.)

Aspire IAS Newspaper Analysis Programme classes and handouts will be sufficient for this.

Whatever S&T topic you are learning, always focus on the concept, why it is in news, practical applications, potential threats, benefits far into the future etc. Just do this and you will easily handle this topic in the final exam.

Science and Technology - developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

  • This topic is very wide as it mentions about General Science and Technology, starting from its development to application and its effects in everyday life. It would be prudent to read about various inventions that have helped human lives, made it easier like Computers, Modern Machines, Solar Equipment, Mobile phones etc.
  • The part is important even for the Preliminary exam, and therefore it must be given a lot of attention. Questions asked from this part are of a dynamic nature that is they are asked mostly keeping in mind the current developments.
  • This question from 2016 will help you understand the pattern of questions which are asked, India s Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) which has a database containing formatted information on More than 2 million medicinal formulations is proving a powerful weapon in country's fight against erroneous patents. Discuss the pros and cons of making this database publicly available under open-source licensing.


  • Science NCERTs (Class 6th Class 10th)
  • The Hindu

Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

  • This topic has to be covered with the help of newspapers and science magazines as reference books are mostly focussed on Western inventions and contributions to Science and Technology.
  • Achievements of Indians start right from Varahamihir, Bhaskar, Sushruta, Charaka to Jagdish Chandra Bose and Chandrasekhar.
  • It is recommended to study this topic from newspapers on current achievements as well as past contributions of Indians in Science and Technology.
  • Sample question from 2016,
  • Discuss India s achievements in the field of Space Science and Technology. How the application of this technology has helped India in its socio-economic development?


  • The Hindu Articles.
  • India Year Book

Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nanotechnology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

  • The topics are from current affairs related to Space, Information Technology, Robotics, Nano Technology, Biotechnology and IPR. Following newspapers regularly along with reading specific chapters from India Year Book and Economic Survey will help a lot.


  • The Hindu
  • India Year Book
  • Economic Survey
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