|GS-II||India needs a free and independent media for its own well-being.|
|How MGNREGA transformed into a monument of failure|
|How to make the Surrogacy Bill more inclusive?|
|GS-III||The Terrorist tag|
GS- II Paper : India needs a free and independent media for its own well-being.
Journalists are facing heightened threats around the globe, according to the 2019 World Press Freedom Index compiled by Reporters without Borders.
India’s rank fell by two places on global freedom press index to be ranked 140 out of 180 countries in the annual Reporters without Borders.
Index is topped by Norway, finds an increased sense of hostility towards journalists across the world.
Paris-based Reporters Sans Frontiers (RSF), or Reporters without Borders, is a non-profit organization that works to document and combat attacks on journalists around the world.
In its 2019 index, RSF finds that hatred of journalists has degenerated into violence, contributing to an increase in fear around the world.
World Freedom Index And India:
For a country that prides itself on the strength of its democracy, India’s record in upholding the freedom of press has been consistently poor.
Source: The Hindu
GS-II Paper: How MGNREGA transformed into a monument of failure
Effect of decline in Allocation to MGNREGA
Weakening of MGNREGA
Original Vision for MGNREGA
Ineffective MGNREGA at present
Source: Live Mint
GS-II Paper: How to make the Surrogacy Bill more inclusive?
The Surrogacy Bill (Regulation) Bill,2019
The Surrogacy Bill introduced by Harshvardhan in Lok Sabha.
What is Surrogacy Bill?
The bill defines surrogacy as a practice where a woman gives birth to a child for an intending couple with the intention to hand over the child after the birth to the intending couple.
Regulation of surrogacy
Purposes for which surrogacy is permitted
Surrogacy is permitted when it is:
Eligibility criteria for intending couple
Certificate of eligibility
Eligibility criteria for surrogate mother
Registration of surrogacy clinics
Source: The Hindu
GS-II: Floor Test
The Supreme Court is scheduled to hear a plea filed for an immediate floor test in Karnataka Assembly.
What is a floor test?
What is composite floor test?
When no party gets a clear majority, the governor can use his discretion in the selection of chief ministerial candidate to prove the majority as soon as possible.
Source: Indian Express
GS-III: The Terrorist tag
India needs tough laws to combat terror, but the proposed amendments could be misused. The idea of designating an individual as terrorist , as the latest amendments to the Unlawful Activities(Prevention)Act. However ,designating an individual as a terrorist raises serious constitutional questions and has the potential for misuse there is no set procedure for designating an individual a terrorist.
The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill,2019
Features of the Bill
Who may commit terrorism
Under the Act, the central government may designate an organisation as a terrorist organisation if it:
(i) commits or participates in acts of terrorism
(ii) Prepares for terrorism.
(iii) Promotes terrorism.
(iv) Is otherwise involved in terrorism.
The Bill additionally empowers the government to designate individuals as terrorists on the same grounds.
Approval for seizure of property by NIA
If the investigation is conducted by an officer of the National Investigation Agency (NIA), the approval of the Director General of NIA would be required for seizure of properties that may be connected with terrorism.
Investigation by NIA
Under the Act, investigation of cases may be conducted by officers of the rank of Deputy Superintendent or Assistant Commissioner of Police or above. The Bill additionally empowers the officers of the NIA, of the rank of Inspector or above, to investigate cases.
Insertion to schedule of treaties: The Act defines terrorist acts to include acts committed within the scope of any of the treaties listed in a schedule to the Act. The Schedule lists nine treaties, including the Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (1997), and the Convention against Taking of Hostages (1979). The Bill adds another treaty to the list. This is the International Convention for Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005).
Source: The Hindu
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