|GS-I||Why women are still being treated as unequal to men|
|GS-II||Democracy and its discontents|
|Reforming the Law Commission: Govt should enshrine in law, the composition, tenure, functions and work procedure of the panel|
|Public health versus free speech|
|GS-III||GS-III: Star tortoise, otters get higher protection at CITES|
GS-I: Why women are still being treated as unequal to men
According to a study published in American Psychologist, for the first time in history, 86% of US adults have admitted that men and women are equally intelligent. In 1946, only 35% of those surveyed thought both men and women are equally intelligent.
Status of gender equality
Suggestions to Bridge Gender Gap:
Achieving gender parity is not about organizing awareness programmes and pasting a few posters in offices. It is all about fundamentally altering beliefs upheld by the two strongest institutions of any society the family and religion.
Source: Live Mint
GS-II: Democracy and its discontents
Civilisation progresses with the evolution of institutions designed by humans to govern their a?airs. Institutions of electoral democracy have evolved over the centuries, with notable innovations in the U.K., France and theU.S. that provided models for electoral democracies everywhere.
Basic forms of democracy are:
DIRECT DEMOCRACY: Citizens participate in the decision-making personally. Example- Switzerland.
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY: Elected officials represent a group of people. It is an element of both parliamentary and presidential systems of government. Examples – United Kingdom, India, USA, etc.
Democracy in India
Democracy is important because it gives representation to a larger section of society in the Government. But the world still witnesses full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes and even authoritarian regimes. Efforts from institutions like United Nations and nations world over are needed so that representation by citizens of various nations of the world may be met and their voices be heard. At the same time, democracy also needs to have various internal checks like independence of judiciary so that its real goals are achieved.
Source: The Hindu
GS-II: Reforming the Law Commission: Govt should enshrine in law, the composition, tenure, functions and work procedure of the panel.
There are reports that the cabinet will take a call on reconstituting the Law Commission.
Ad Hoc nature of Law commission
If the commission has to work without regard for extra-legal and political considerations it must have a governing statute defining its powers and responsibilities, and limitations. It must be placed under a proper parliamentary charter.
Source: Indian Express
GS-II: Public health versus free speech.
Tobacco companies will try their best to prevent pictorial warning on cigarette packages in the U.S.
Fight against Tobacco
Importance of Messaging
Challenges to stricter of tobacco law from USA
Pictorial warnings can turn he power of packing on its head far from brand building, packages with graphic images will become a mobile medium to spread public health messages at no cost to the government.
Source: The Hindu
GS-III: Star tortoise, otters get higher protection at CITES
India’s proposal to upgrade the protection of star tortoises (Geochelone elegans), the smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) and small-clawed otters (Anoyx cinereus) in CITES have been approved. The proposal to remove Rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo) from Appendix II of Convention is also under consideration.
Benefits of the move
These species have been listed under Appendix I of CITES and will now enjoy the highest degree of protection as there will be a complete international ban enforced on their trade.
It has three appendices:
Appendix I includes species threatened with extinction. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances.
Appendix II provides a lower level of protection.
Appendix III contains species that are protected in at least one country, which has asked other CITES parties for assistance in controlling trade.
Source: The Hindu
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