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31 Dec, 2021

15 Min Read

Tiger Reserves and Tiger Census- UPSC

GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment Conservation

Tiger Reserves and Tiger Census

Tigers are at the top of the food chain and are sometimes referred to as “umbrella species" that is their conservation also conserve many other species in the same area.

More than 80% of the world’s wild tigers are in India, and it’s crucial to keep track of their numbers.

India’s five tiger landscapes are:

  1. Shivalik Hills and Gangetic Plains,
  2. Central Indian Landscape and Eastern Ghats,
  3. The Western Ghats,
  4. North-East Hills and Brahmaputra Plains and
  5. Sundarbans.

According to recent Census, Region-wise Highest population are in Central Indian Landscape and Eastern Ghats followed by Western Ghats Region.

Tiger Census 2018:

  • The fourth cycle of the All India Tiger Estimation 2018, has entered the Guinness World Record for being the world’s largest camera trap wildlife survey.
  • The country now has an estimated 2967 tigers as per the latest census.
  • With this number, India is home to nearly 75% of the global tiger population.
  • It has already fulfilled its resolve of doubling tiger numbers, made at St. Petersburg in 2010, much before the target year of 2022.

4th cycle of All India Tiger Estimation- Highlights:

  • While the 2014 census pegged the total number of striped big cats in the country at 2,226, the 2010 census put it at 1,706 and the 2006 version at 1,411, indicating that tiger numbers have been on the up.
  • State-wise highest number of tigers were found in Madhya Pradesh- 526, followed by Karnataka- 524 and Uttarakhand- 442 tigers.
  • In five years, the number of protected areas increased from 692 to over 860, community reserves from 43 to over 100.
  • While Pench Tiger Reserve in Madhya Pradesh recorded the highest number of tigers, Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu registered the “maximum improvement” since 2014.
  • Chhattisgarh and Mizoram saw a decline in their tiger numbers while tiger numbers in Odisha remained constant. All other states witnessed a positive trend.

Conservation efforts- National and Global:

  1. The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has launched the M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers – Intensive Protection and Ecological Status), a mobile monitoring system.
  2. At the Petersburg Tiger Summit in 2010, leaders of 13 tiger range countries resolved to double its number in the wild, with slogan ‘T X 2’.
  3. Global Tiger Initiative (GTI) program by World Bank. Formed the Global Tiger Initiative Council (GTIC), with two arms –the Global Tiger Forum and the Global Snow Leopard Ecosystem Protection Program.
  4. The Project Tiger, launched in 1973, has grown to more than 50 reserves amounting to 2.2% of the country’s geographical area.

Tiger Reserves of India

Top 5 Reserves in terms of Core Zone Area: Nagarjunsagar Srisailam >Amrabad >Namdhapa > Satpura> Melaghat.

Sl. No.

Name of Tiger Reserve

State/ District

Climate/ Vegetation

Rivers /Physiography

Protected Areas inside reserve

Indigenous tribes

Area of the core / critical tiger habitat (In Sq. Kms.)

Total area (In Sq. Kms.)

1

Nagarjunsagar Srisailam

Andhra Pradesh (Kurnool, Prakasam, Guntur, Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar)

Krishna river, Ethipothala Falls, Pedda Dukudu falls , Nallamala hills.

Gundla Brahmeshwaram WLS

Chenchus

2595.72

3296.31

2

Namdapha

Arunachal Pradesh(Changlang district)

Noa Dihing River originates at the Chaukan Pass.

Between the Dapha bum range of the Mishmi Hills and the Patkai range.

Lisu tribes

1807.82

2052.82

3

Kamlang Tiger Reserve

Arunachal Pradesh

Lohit District

Tropical and Subtropical climate

Rivers: Kamlang

Mishmi, Digaro Mishmi , and Miju Mishmi people

671.00

783.00

4

Pakke / Pakhui

Arunachal Pradesh (Pakke Kessang district)

Subtropical climate

Tropical Wet Evergreen to Alpine

Rivers: Nameri,Pakke, kameng

In news for Hornbill Conservation

Sessa Orchid Sanctuary and Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary.

Nyishi tribe

683.45

1198.45

5

Manas

Assam(Chirang and Baksa District)

Tropical monsoon type climate

Semi evergreen to Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests

Endemic spp: Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur and pygmy hog

Manas River

840.04

3150.92

6

Nameri

Assam

200

344

7

Orang Tiger Reserve

Assam (Darrang and Sonitpur districts)

Northern bank of the Brahmaputra River, Pachnoi river, Belsiri river and Dhanshiri River border the park.

79.28

492.46

8

Kaziranga

Important Bird Area

Assam(Golaghat, Karbi Anglong and Nagaon districts)

Elephant grass, marshland, and dense tropical moist broadleaf forests,

Indian leopard, gaur, chital, striped hyena, Indian jackal, sloth bear,

625.58

1173.58

9

Valmiki

Bihar(Champaran district)

598.45

899.38

10

Udanti-Sitanadi

Chattisgarh

851.09

1842.54

11

Achanakmar

Chattisgarh

626.195

914.017

12

Indravati

Chhattisgarh

1258.37

2799.07

13

Palamau

Jharkhand(Latehar district) Part of Betla National Park and Palamau WLS

North Koel River

414.08

1129.93

14

Bandipur

Karnataka (Chamaraja nagar)

Shrub to dry to moist deciduous,

Kabini river in the north and the Moyar river in the south. Nugu river runs through the park.

Badagas

872.24

1456.3

15

Bhadra

Karnataka

492.46

1064.29

16

Dandeli-Anshi

Karnataka (Uttara Kannada district,)

Kali River

black panther, Indian bison, sloth bear, Indian wild boar, bonnet macaque, gray langur, gray slender loris,

814.884

1097.514

17

Nagarahole

Karnataka

643.35

1205.76

18

Biligiri Ranganatha Temple

Karnataka

359.1

574.82

19

Periyar

Kerala

Malabar grey hornbill, Nilgiri wood pigeon, blue-winged parakeet, Nilgiri flycatcher

located high in the Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills of the south Western Ghats

881

925

20

Parambikulam

Kerala(Palakkad district)

It is in the Sungam range of hills between the Anaimalai Hills and Nelliampathy Hills

Kadar, Malasar, Muduvar and Mala Malasar

390.89

643.662

21

Kanha

Madhya Pradesh

917.43

2051.791

22

Pench

Madhya Pradesh

411.33

1179.63225

23

Bandhavgarh

Madhya Pradesh

716.903

1598.1

24

Panna

Madhya Pradesh

576.13

1578.55

25

Satpura

Madhya Pradesh

1339.264

2133.30797

26

Sanjay-Dubri

Madhya Pradesh

812.571

1674.502

27

Melghat

Maharashtra (Amravati District)

Tropical dry deciduous in nature, dominated by teak (Tectona grandis)

Tapti River and the Gawilgadh ridge of the Satpura Range form the boundaries.

Reserve is catchment area of Khandu, Khapra, Sipna, Gadga and Dolar.

Korku tribe (80 %) and others like Gond, Nihal etc

1500.49

2768.52

28

Tadoba-Andhari

Maharashtra

625.82

1727.5911

29

Pench

Maharashtra

257.26

741.22

30

Sahyadri

Maharashtra(Satara , Sangli, Kolhapur and Ratnagiri)

Moist deciduous forests to evergreen

600.12

1165.57

31

Nawegaon-Nagzira

Maharashtra(Gondia district)

Dry mixed forest to moist forest

653.674

653.674

32

Bor

Maharashtra (Hingani in Wardha District)

Dry deciduous forests ecoregion, with the main species being teak, ain, tendu (East Indian ebony) and bamboo.

Bor Tiger Reserve will be merged with Pench Tiger Reserve as a 'Satellite core area',

Indian leopard, Indian bison, blue bull, chital, sambar deer, barking deer, mouse deer

138.12

138.12

33

Dampa

Mizoram

500

988

34

Similipal

Odisha

1194.75

2750

35

Satkosia

Odisha

523.61

963.87

36

Ranthambore

Rajasthan(Sawai Madhopur)

Dry deciduous forests and open grassy meadow

Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, nilgai, wild boar, sambar, striped hyena, sloth bear,

Bounded to the north by the Banas River and to the south by the Chambal River.

Ecoregion: Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests

1113.364

1411.291

37

Sariska

Rajasthan

881.1124

1213.342

38

Mukandra Hills

Rajasthan

417.17

759.99

39

Kalakad-Mundanthurai

Tamil Nadu(Tirunelveli)

895

1601.542

40

Anamalai

Tamil Nadu (Cuddalore District)

958.59

1479.87

41

Mudumalai

Tamil Nadu(Nilgiris District)

321

688.59

42

Sathyamangalam

Tamil Nadu(Erode District)

tropical evergreen (Shola), semi-evergreen, mixed-deciduous, dry deciduous and thorn forests.

Irula tribe (also known as the Urali) and Soliga communities

793.49

1408.4

43

Srivilliputhur Meghamalai

Tamil Nadu(Virudh nagar District)

Recently Formed in 2020

44

Kawal

Telangana(Mancherial District)

Dry deciduous teak forests mixed with bamboo,

It’s catchment for the rivers Godavari and Kadam.

893.23

2019.12

45

Amrabad

Telangana

2166.37*

2611.39*

46

Dudhwa

Uttar Pradesh

Terai belt of marshy grasslands

swamp deer, sambar deer, barking deer, spotted deer, hog deer, sloth bear

1093.79

2201.7748

47

Pilibhit

Uttar Pradesh (Pilibhit and Shahjahanpur Districts)

Sal Shorea robusta forests.

River Sharda and the River Ghaghara

Suhelwa and Sohagibarwa wildlife sanctuaries

602.798

730.2498

48

Amangarh (buffer of Corbett TR)

Uttar Pradesh

-

80.6

Corbett

Uttarakhand (Nainital and Pauri Garhwal district)

Monsoon type

Moist deciduous forest

Ramganga river, Patli Dun valley

Bhoksa/Buksa people

821.99

1288.31

49

Rajaji TR

Uttarakhand(Haridwar, Dehradun and Pauri Garhwal.)

255.63

1075.17

50

Sunderbans

West Bengal(South 24 Parganas, Khulna and Bakerganj)

Royal Bengal tiger, saltwater crocodile, river terrapin, olive ridley turtle, Ganges river dolphin, hawksbill turtle and mangrove horseshoe crab.

Hugli to the mouth of the Meghna river

1699.62

2584.89

51

Buxa

West Bengal

Northern bank of the Brahmaputra River

390.5813

757.9038

TOTAL

40340.12

71027.10

Source: PIB

Consumer Protection Rules, 2021

GS-III : Economic Issues eCommerce

Consumer Protection (Jurisdiction of the District Commission, the State Commission and the National Commission) Rules, 2021

1) Pecuniary Jurisdiction

The Consumer Protection Act, 2019

  • The Consumer Protection Act, 2019 promulgates a three-tier quasi-judicial mechanism for redressal of consumer disputes namely district commissions, state commissions and national commissions.
  • The Act also stipulates the pecuniary jurisdiction of each tier of consumer commission.
  • As per the existing provisions of the Act, District Commissions have jurisdiction to entertain complaints where the value of the goods or services paid as consideration does not exceed one crore rupees.

  • State Commissions have jurisdiction to entertain complaints where the value of the goods or services paid as consideration, exceeds 1 crore rupees, but does not exceed 10 crore rupees and
  • National Commission has jurisdiction to entertain complaints where the value of goods or services paid as consideration exceeds 10 crore rupees.
  • After the Act came into force, it was observed that the existing provisions relating to pecuniary jurisdiction of consumer commissions were leading to cases that could earlier be filed in National Commission to be filed in State Commissions and cases which could earlier be filed in State Commissions to be filed in District Commissions. This caused a significant increase in the workload of District Commissions, leading to rising in pendency and delay in disposal of cases, defeating the very object of securing speedy redressal to consumers as envisaged under the Act.
  • With regard to revision of pecuniary jurisdiction, Central Government held wide consultation with States/UTs, consumer organizations, law chairs etc. and examined the issues that had created long pendency of cases in detail.

Changes in Consumer Protection Rules, 2021

With notification of the aforementioned rules, the new pecuniary jurisdiction, subject to other provisions of the Act, shall be as under:

  • District Commissions shall have jurisdiction to entertain complaints where the value of the goods or services paid as consideration does not exceed 50 lakh rupees.
  • State Commissions shall have jurisdiction to entertain complaints where the value of the goods or services paid as consideration exceeds 50 lakh rupees but does not exceed 2 crore rupees.
  • National Commission shall have jurisdiction to entertain complaints where the value of the goods or services paid as consideration exceeds 2 crore rupees.

2) Time for disposal of Complaint

  • It may be mentioned that the Consumer Protection Act, 2019 stipulates that every complaint shall be disposed of as expeditiously as possible and endeavour shall be made to decide the complaint within a period of 3 months from the date of receipt of notice by the opposite party where the complaint does not require analysis or testing of commodities and within 5 months if it requires analysis or testing of commodities.

3) e-Filing of complaint: E-Daakhil Portal

  • The Act also provides consumers with the option of filing complaints electronically.
  • To facilitate consumers in filing their complaints online, the Central Government has set up the E-Daakhil Portal, which provides a hassle-free, speedy and inexpensive facility to consumers around the country to conveniently approach the relevant consumer forum, dispensing the need to travel and be physically present to file their grievance.
  • E-Daakhil has many features like e-Notice, case document download link & VC hearing link, filing written response by the opposite party, filing rejoinder by complainant and alerts via SMS/Email.
  • Presently, the facility of E-Daakhil is available in 544 consumer commissions, which includes the National Commission and consumer commissions in 21 states and 3 UTs.
  • So far, more than 10,000 cases have been filed using the E-Daakhil Portal and more than 43000 users have registered on the portal.

4) Mediation

To provide a faster and amicable mode of settling consumer disputes, the Act also includes a reference of consumer disputes to Mediation, with the consent of both parties. This will not only save time and money for the parties involved in litigating the dispute but will also aid in reducing the overall pendency of cases.

Source: PIB

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