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Biodiversity in the time of flood

Biodiversity in the time of the flood GS-III: Biodiversity in the time of deluge  Context Floods impact the poorest strata of society the most, causing a loss of lives, livelihood options, and assets. There is a need for the assessment of floods from a ‘sustainable development perspective. Causes for floods The root cause of such floods is the high precipitation levels. Anthropogenic factors like unscientific development and over-exploitation of nature aggravat

Himalayan Ibex and Endemic species

Himalayan Ibex Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III-  Environment A recent study by scientists of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) has proved that Himalayan Ibex is a distinct species from the Siberian Ibex. Key Points The study was funded through the National Mission on Himalayan Studies. The National Mission on Himalayan Studies is implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. It targets to provide much needed focus

All about World Earth Day

Earth Day Every year on April 22nd we celebrate Earth Day. The Earth day is conducted in more than 192 countries around the world. The Earth Day is expected to display backing for conserving the environment. UNESCO Conference held in 1969 recommended selecting March 21st, 1970 as the first Earth Day. The United States chose to celebrate a separate Earth Day on April 22nd annually. Later this date became the internationally accepted Earth Day in 1990. There are also several communities th

Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute

Context: The Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute (JNTBGRI) here is gearing up to play a key role in a nationwide project to decode the genetic information of all known species of plants and animals in the country. Indian Initiative on Earth BioGenome Sequencing (IIEBS) The Institute has been selected as one of the Biological Knowledge and Resource Centres of the Indian Initiative on Earth BioGenome Sequencing (IIEBS). It will join hands with other pre

National Mission for Clean Ganga organised IDEAthon

National Mission for Clean Ganga organised IDEAthon Context: The National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) under the Ministry of Jal Shakti and the National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA) organized an IDEAthon on “The future of River Management’ to explore how the COVID-19 crisis can shape River Management strategies for the future. Dealing with the COVID-19 crisis has been a challenge for most countries across the globe which have witnessed some sort of lockdown in most t

Environment Impact Assessment

Environment Impact Assessment Notification(EIA), 2020 extended till 30th June. Context The Central Government, in exercise of the powers conferred under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 published the draft notification namely, Environment Impact Assessment Notification extending the EIA assessment by 2 months till 30th June due to COVID-19 pandemic. About Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process of evaluating the likely environmental im

Lockdown air: less NO2, same PM2.5 and more urban ozone

Lockdown air: less NO2, same PM2.5 and more urban ozone Introduction While traffic pollution has been falling, the lockdown may be leading to the generation of a dangerous pollutant, urban ozone, which can cause airway inflammation in humans. The research is specific to the UK. It has been conducted by experts from The University of Manchester. Nitrogen oxides Levels of nitrogen oxides were found reduced in most locations in the UK during mid-March and April. The level of decline

Wayand’s giant jackfruit enters Guinness record

Wayanad's giant jackfruit enters the Guinness record A massive jackfruit, weighing over 52 kg and 117 cm long, is eyeing to enter the Guinness record book. The fruit was found in a private plantation at Kappattumula in nearby Mananthavady and is likely to replace the existing Guinness record of the heaviest jackfruit globally. Another giant jackfruit, weighing 51.500 kg, from Kollam, is also vying for the record books. To date, the world's heaviest jackfruit according to Guinnes

Ecologically Sensitive Area of Western Ghats.

Ecologically Sensitive Area of Western Ghats. States express desire to expedite early notification of Ecologically Sensitive Area of Western Ghats. Context: Union Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Shri Prakash Javadekar today interacted with Chief Ministers, Cabinet Ministers & State Government Officers of six states viz, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu through Video Conference to discuss issues relating to notification of Ecologically S

Charu Mussel

Invasive mussel spreads in backwaters An invasive mussel native to the South and Central American coasts is spreading quickly in the backwaters of Kerala, elbowing out other mussel and clam species and threatening the livelihoods of fishermen engaged in molluscan fisheries. The rapid spread of the Charu mussel (Mytella strigata) may have been triggered by Cyclone Ockhi which struck the region in 2017, according to a paper published in the Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries.

Wajre Urban Forest model

Wajre Urban Forest model This year’s theme for World Environment Day  is ‘Biodiversity’. In view of the prevalent situation due to COVID-19 pandemic the ministry will be holding virtual celebrations of World Environment Day on this year’s theme theme with focus on Nagar Van (Urban Forests). In Pune city on the forest land of 40 acres a forest has been developed. More than 65000 trees, 5 ponds, 2 watch towers have been established, with many trees growing u

National Gene Bank

National Gene Bank Part of: GS-III- Bio-diversity (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) Recently, the National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB) under the Ministry of AYUSH and the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) under the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). The purpose of this MoU is to conserve the Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Genetic Resources (MAPGRs) in the National Gene Bank (NGB). Establishment: The

Aerial Seeding in Haryana

Aerial Seeding in Haryana GS-Paper-3 Biodiversity (PT-MAINS) IFS EXAM Recently, the Haryana government has employed aerial seeding techniques to improve green cover in the Aravalli area of the state. The project is being carried out on a pilot basis to regenerate the low vegetation density or denuded areas on inaccessible or difficult sites of Aravalli and Shivalik hills. Aerial Seeding Aerial Seeding is a plantation technique wherein seed ball

Forest loss threatens hornbills

Forest loss threatens hornbills A study based on satellite data has flagged a high rate of deforestation in a major hornbill habitat in Arunachal Pradesh. Issues: Using fine-scale satellite imagery, changes in forest cover of Papum Reserve Forest (RF) adjoining the Pakke Tiger Reserve as well as a part of Assam affected by illegal felling and ethnic conflict was assessed. Papum RF is a nesting habitat of three species of the large, colourful fruit-eating hornbills: Great

A tale of mangrove migration

A tale of mangrove migration Introduction: In 2008, Punarbasu Chaudhuri, mangrove ecologist from the University of Calcutta spotted an interesting mangrove plant at the bank of river Hooghly inside Kolkata city. It was quite unusual, as mangroves require a cyclic supply of saline water, and this growth at an upstream zone was remarkable. He then started an investigation on their distribution in the Hooghly estuary, and his recent paper suggests that the mangroves have started moving

Pathways to diversity

Pathways to diversity Context: The UN Summit on Biodiversity was convened on September 30, 2020. The member nations of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) took note of the link between biodiversity loss and the spread of animal pathogens, calling for an end to destructive industrial and commercial practices. The Summit on Biodiversity will be convened under the theme “Urgent Action on Biodiversity for Sustainable Development.” Issues: Aichi Targets we

2 New Ramsar Wetlands added: Now the total is 39

2 New Ramsar Wetlands added: Now the total is 39 Ramsar Convention or Convention on Wetlands of International Importance It is an intergovernmental treaty for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. It was adopted on 2 Feb 1971 (Thus World Wetlands Day) in the Iranian city of Ramsar (Caspian Sea) and came into force in 1975. (WNBSR also in 1971) It is the only global environmental system treaty that deals with a particular ecosystem. Criteria for Wetland

CSIR-CMERI’s Municipal Solid Waste Processing Facility

CSIR-CMERI’s Municipal Solid Waste Processing Facility Recently, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research’s Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CMERI) has developed a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Processing Facility (Decentralised Solid Waste Management Plant) to solve the problem of waste management in India. MSW Processing Facility: It is developed following the Solid Waste Management (SWM) Rules 2016 prescribed by the Ministry of Environ

COVID-19, climate and carbon neutrality

COVID-19, climate and carbon neutrality By, Jairam Ramesh is an MP (Rajya Sabha) and a former Union Minister Context Our lives have been turned upside down. The COVID-19 crisis and its aftermath can be seen either as a longish pause on the button of economic growth or as an opportunity for reset, recalibration and rethink. Note: Phrase can be used in Essay:   History is divided into two periods: Before the Common Era or BCE and the Co

Biodiversity governance: The agreements and laws that help enforce it

Biodiversity governance: The agreements and laws that help enforce it Context This article talks about the issues related to biodiversity governance in India. Extensive biodiversity loss in the past decades has spared neither developed nor developing countries. Nagoya protocol: This rapidly accelerating biodiversity loss led to a series of negotiations and agreements among countries like the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD). The CBD, in its spirit, laid the found

The Paris Agreement is no panacea

The Paris Agreement is no panacea Context Many developing countries, including India, which hesitated to sign the Paris Agreement because it had exempted developed countries from their mandatory obligations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, turned into its devout supporters the moment Mr. Trump denounced it as a hoax and announced his decision to withdraw from it. Today, the Paris Agreement is deemed as the panacea for all environmental ills when the truth is that it is a repudiati

Climate Change Knowledge Portal

Climate Change Knowledge Portal Recently, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has launched the ‘India Climate Change Knowledge Portal. Objective: The Portal will help in disseminating knowledge among citizens about all the major steps the Government is taking at both national and international levels to address climate change issues. Benefit: It will be a single point Information resource which provides information on the different climate initiative

Pilibhit tiger reserve gets the first TX2 award

Pilibhit tiger reserve gets the first TX2 award: Pilibhit Tiger Reserve (PTR) in Uttar Pradesh has bagged the first international award, TX2, among the 13 tiger-ranging countries for having doubled the number of tigers in less than the stipulated time. In 2014, All India Tiger Estimation estimated 25 tigers in Pilibhit and the 2018 estimation showed an increase by projecting 65 tigers. Conservation Excellence Award for 2020: Transboundary Manas Conservation Area straddling the India-

Maharashtra sets up Desalination plants

Maharashtra sets up Desalination Plants in Mumbai It is now the fourth state in India to experiment with the idea. Features A desalination plant turns salt water into water that is fit to drink. The most commonly used technique used for the process is reverse osmosis where external pressure is applied to push solvents from an area of high-solute concentration to an area of low-solute concentration through a membrane. The microscopic pores in the membranes allow water molecules th

Himalayan serow

Himalayan serow A Himalayan serow has been sighted for the first time in the Himalayan cold desert region-Spiti, Himachal Pradesh. Himalayan serow resembles a cross between a goat, a donkey, a cow, and a pig. There are several species of serows, and all of them are found in Asia. The Himalayan serow, or Capricornis sumatraensis thar, is restricted to the Himalayan region. Taxonomically, it is a subspecies of the mainland serow (Capricornis sumatraensis).

Arunachal Kiwi

Arunachal Kiwi Arunachal Kiwi got organic certification for Kiwi under Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North East Region (MOVCD-NER). [MOVCD-NER is a scheme for the north-eastern states by the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare under the Central government.] Arunachal Pradesh is the first in the country to get this certification for Kiwis. These kiwis have grown Ziro Valley located in the Lower Subansiri district in Arunachal. An agricultural practice

Migratory birds in Harike wetland, Punjab

Migratory birds in Harike wetland, Punjab Winter migratory water birds using the central Asian flyway have started making a beeline to Punjab’s Harike wetland, offering a delight for bird lovers. Birds such as the Eurasian coot, greylag goose, bar-headed goose, gadwall and the northern shoveler are the prominent ones that could be sighted at Harike. Among other species, common pochard, spot-billed duck, little cormorant, pied avocet, great cormorant, ferruginous pochard and common

National Mission on Biodiversity and Human Well-being

National Mission on Biodiversity and Human Well-being The Government of India has recently launched the National Mission on Biodiversity and Human Well-being. The mission aims to explore the neglected links between biodiversity science and human well-being across the sectors of health, economic development, agricultural production and livelihood generation, in combination with efforts to mitigate climate change and related disasters. One of the components of the mission explicitly lin

A Budget not for the environment

A Budget not for the environment Introduction In 1991, when the then Finance Minister Manmohan Singh ushered in economic reforms that catapulted India into the global economy in a belief that once there is enough money in the economy through growth, it can be put for ecological purposes. A dismal gap Governments have not put in the substantial new financial resources raised through rapid growth into environmental protection. Budgetary allocations for the Ministry of Enviro

Circular Economy

Circular Economy It is an economic system aimed at eliminating waste; and the continual use of resources. It is a system of resource utilization where reduction, reuse and recycling of elements prevail. Circular systems create a closed system, minimizing the use of resource input and the creation of waste, pollution and emissions. It is an alternative to a traditional linear economy. This linear economy is modelled on the take-make-waste industrial model (make, use, dispose o

Simlipal Biosphere Reserve

Simlipal Biosphere Reserve   Simlipal National Park is a national park and a tiger reserve in the Mayurbhanj district of Odisha. It is part of Similipal-Kuldiha-Hadgarh Elephant Reserve popularly known as Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve. Simlipal National Park derives its name from the abundance of semul (red silk cotton trees) that bloom here. It was the second largest national park in India. Its reserve is part of the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserv

CSIR Floriculture Mission

CSIR Floriculture Mission Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Floriculture Mission will be implemented in 21 States and Union Territories of India. Efforts are being made to take the agro-technologies, new varieties and value addition technologies with the CSIR institutions to the farmers and entrepreneurs.  It is being implemented in collaboration with Directorate of Floriculture (ICAR); KVIC; APEDA; TRIFED; Fragrance and Flavour Development Centre (FFDC), a

SATAT Initiative

SATAT Initiative Context: Indian Oil, NTPC and SDMC have signed an MoU to develop a waste-to-energy facility at Delhi's Okhla landfill site using gasification technology. About the SATAT initiative: The initiative is aimed at providing a Sustainable Alternative To Affordable Transportation (SATAT) as a developmental effort that would benefit both vehicle users as well as farmers and entrepreneurs. Compressed Bio-Gas plants are proposed to be set up mainly through independent


Biofuels Researchers of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Hyderabad are studying impediments to incorporating biofuels into the fuel sector in India. Significance of Biofuels: Biofuels in India are of strategic importance as it augers well with the ongoing initiatives of the Government such as Make in India, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, and Skill Development and offers a great opportunity to integrate with the ambitious targets of doubling Farmer's Income, Import Reduction, Emp

Gregarious bamboo flowering in India

Gregarious bamboo flowering in India What is the Gregarious flowering of bamboo? Gregarious bamboo flowering refers to the phenomenon when all populations of a particular species flower roughly at the same time. The bamboo plants die after flowering and setting seeds. Such synchronised flowering, sometimes at intervals as long as 50 to 120 years, may bring in its wake a swarm of rats, subsequent famine and loss of lives and livelihoods. National Bamboo Mis

Increasing House Sparrow Population in India

Increasing House Sparrow Population in India House Sparrow population was on the decline in cities, for decades. But now citizen-led movements across various states are facilitating the increase of the House Sparrow population. About House Sparrow: House Sparrow(Passer domesticus) is a bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, found in most parts of the world. Characteristics of House Sparrow: The male and female House Sparrow are easily distinguishable not in size but in col

Mahendragiri Biosphere Reserve

Mahendragiri Biosphere Reserve Odisha government has proposed a second biosphere reserve in the southern part of the state at Mahendragiri. Similipal Biosphere Reserve is Odisha’s first such reserve, which was notified in 1996. The area of the proposed Mahendragiri Biosphere Reserve is spread over Gajapati and Ganjam districts in the Eastern Ghats and is near the Mahendragiri peak. Soura Tribe: They are a Munda ethnic group from eastern India living in southern O

Migratory Birds Found Dead near Pong Lake

Migratory Birds Found Dead near Pong Lake As many as 27 migratory birds died on account of avian influenza in Himachal Pradesh’s Pong Dam Wildlife Sanctuary. The lake is fed by the Beas River. Its numerous perennial tributaries are Gaj, Neogal, Binwa, Uhl, Bangana, and Baner. Government of India also declared Pong Dam Lake as a “Wetland of National Importance” The sanctuary area is covered with tropical and subtropical forests & it shelters a great number of In

Environment Related Important Dates

Environment Related Important Dates GS-Paper-ENVIRONMENT DATES- Prelims Context: Environmentally important dates are highly important for PRELIMS in the UPSC examination and also a student can utilize in MAINS. This article is about Environmentally Important Days, being celebrated in India to increase awareness regarding various aspects, and concerns on the environment. February February 2 World Wetlands Day February 27

Do insects migrate? Which insect has the longest migration route?

Do insects migrate? Which insect has the longest migration route? Many dragonflies, beetles, butterflies, locusts and moths are known to migrate during the breeding season and the distance travelled varies with species. Most insects travel in large groups and scientists have been studying these movements for several years. A recent study (PNAS) noted that the painted lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui) can make 12,000 to 14,000 kilometre round trips. This is the longest annual insect migrati

Sunderlal Bahuguna and Chipko Movement

Sunderlal Bahuguna and Chipko Movement The 94-year-old environmentalist succumbed to Covid-19 on May 21, 2021, at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in Rishikesh, Uttarakhand. With his demise, India has lost one of the finest environmentalists and social workers who had also been part of India’s freedom movement. About Sundarlal Bahuguna Born in village Maroda near Tehri, Uttarakhand on January 9, 1927, he was an active revolutionary during the Indian Free

Sikkim Vegetation

Sikkim Vegetation Sikkim, the smallest State with less than 1% of India’s landmass, is home to 27% of all flowering plants found in the country, reveals a recent publication by the Botanical Survey of India (BSI). Flora of Sikkim – A Pictorial Guide, released earlier this week, lists 4,912 naturally occurring flowering plants in the tiny Himalayan State. The total number of naturally occurring flowering plants in the country is about 18,004 species, and with 4,912 species, th

Clean Ganga Fund- Role in Ganga Conservation

Clean Ganga Fund- Role in Ganga Conservation The main goal of the Government’s flagship program Namami Gange has been to make Ganga clean and restore its pristine glory. Rejuvenation of such a long river not only poses tremendous challenges but also requires huge investment. The Government has already quadrupled the budget, but still, it will not be sufficient for such a mammoth amount of work. Therefore, a Clean Ganga Fund was created by the Government, in which everyone can contri

Achieving Paris Agreement- the key to save endemic species: Study

Achieving Paris Agreement- the key to save endemic species: Study According to a study published in the journal Biological Conservation, 90% of the endemic species will face extinction unless the goals of the Paris Agreement are met. For example, Kolar Leaf Nose Bat is endemic to India and endemic to only one cave in Hanumanahalli village in Kolar district, Karnataka Endemic species are those plants and animals that exist only in one geographical region. Species can be endemic

Where does India stand on methane emissions?

Where does India stand on methane emissions? Context: This topic is important for UPSE Prelims and GS Paper3. Why India stay away from both the methane pledge and the forest conservation declaration at Glasgow? The story so far: At the ongoing UN Climate Change Conference (the 26th Conference of Parties-COP26) in Glasgow, the United States and the European Union have jointly pledged to cut emissions of the greenhouse gas methane by 2030. They plan to cut down emissio


HUMAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICT Human-wildlife conflict refers to the harmful interaction between humans and wildlife that lead to a loss in terms of life, property and resources. The expanding human population and their greediness lead to the encroachment of wildlife areas and disturbing their natural habitation. VERMIN ISSUE AND RECENT LAW: Recently the wildlife (protection) amendment bill 2021 was introduced in the parliament with the objective to change the wildlife (protection) act 1972.&nbs


AMENDMENT IN ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT, 1986 Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has proposed the amendments in the Environment Protection Act, 1986. The Environment Ministry has proposed to levy more fines and less imprisonment for environmental violations. Present Clause in the Act: Currently the act says that the violators will be punishable with imprisonment up to five years or with a fine up to one lakh or, both. If the violation continues, an additional f


MONARCH BUTTERFLIES The migratory monarch butterflies have been declared endangered in the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List of threatened species. About monarch butterflies It's a sub-species of the Danaus Plexippus butterfly that travels around 4,000 kilometkilometers in America. It is the most recognizable butterfly species that are essential pollinators and further provides various ecosystem services such as maintaining the global fo


INDIA ADDS FIVE MORE RAMSAR SITES India has added five more wetlands of international importance bringing the number of such sites in the country to 54 from the previous 49. These include three wetlands: (Karikili Bird Sanctuary, Pallikaranai Marsh Reserve Forest and Pichavaram Mangrove) in Tamil Nadu, Mizoram (Pala wetland) and Madhya Pradesh (Sakhya Sagar), In India Ramsar wetlands are spread over 11,000 sqkm and around 10% of the total wetland area in the country a

Gaia Hypothesis

Gaia Hypothesis Recently, James Lovelock, the creator of the Gaia hypothesis died on his 103rd birthday. What is Gaia's hypothesis? It is named after the ancient Greek goddess of Earth. It is an interaction between living organisms on the Earth with their inorganic surroundings forming a complex, self-regulating and synergistic system that helps to perpetuate and maintain optimum conditions for life on the planet.  It posits that life on Earth is a self-regulating commun

American Bullfrog & Brown Tree Snake

American Bullfrog & Brown Tree Snake The American bullfrog and Brown Tree Snake cost the world economy $16 billion, as per the study. The invasive duo has caused ecological damage in addition to ruining farm produce and causing expensive power interruptions. More than two million Brown Tree snakes populate the tiny Pacific Island, with one estimate calculating as many as 20 inhabitants per acre of Guam's jungle. The Brown Tree snakes have the most significant impact on P

Amendments to Biodiversity Bill, 2021

Amendments to Biodiversity Bill, 2021 The Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill 2021 was recently the subject of an investigation by the Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC), which recently submitted its recommendations. Image Source - Journals of India The Ministry of Environment and Climate Change submitted various revisions, which the JPC has accepted (MoEFCC). Biodiversity Act, 2002             To ensure the pr

Ocean Diversity Pact

Ocean Diversity Pact Deliberations on a groundbreaking deal to protect marine biodiversity on the high seas are being held in New York by a delegation from India and other UN members. 2018 saw the start of a number of conferences aimed at developing international regulations under the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) regarding the preservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in certain regions. What are High Seas? The high seas are those are

Arctic Snailfish with Freeze Proteins

Arctic Snailfish with Freeze Proteins Scientists have discovered a fluorescent snailfish (Liparis gibbus) with antifreeze proteins coursing through its veins beneath a Greenland glacier. By doing this, snailfish may stop ice crystals from building up in their cells and bodily fluids. About the Discovery The first known Arctic bio fluorescent fish is also a result of the discovery of the Greenland snailfish. According to experts, it is uncommon for a marine animal to dis

Bhitarkanika National Park Odisha

Bhitarkanika National Park       Image Source - Kalinga tv There has been an increased confrontation between humans and crocodiles, now that the crocodile population in the Bhitarkanika National Park has reached saturation.     About Bhitarkanika National Park Orissa's Bhitarkanika National Park spans a massive 672 km2 region. It has India's second-largest mangrove habitat. A network of creeks and canals that rec

Sea Cucumber

Sea Cucumber Recent Chinese investment in a Sea cucumber farm has raised concerns among northern Sri Lankan fishermen. Image Source - Youtube About Sea Cucumber Marine creatures known as sea cucumbers have leathery skin and an elongated body with a single, branching gonad. They can be found in both tropical and temperate oceans, living in both deeper water and the intertidal zone. Sea cucumbers can be found in India in the waters surrounding the Lakshadweep and Andaman Nic

Medicinal Fungi

Medicinal Fungi Researchers at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (IMSc) have conducted an analytical study of medicinal fungi, and the results suggest that some of the substances the fungi secrete may be useful as novel therapeutics. About MeFSAT (Medicinal Fungi Secondary Metabolites and Therapeutics), a database that contains data on 184 medicinal fungi, including mushrooms, was used by the researchers. Basidiomycota and Ascomycota are the two taxonomic div

Living Planet Report 2022

Living Planet Report 2022 Living Planet Report 2022 is published by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). About Living Planet Report The Living Planet Report is the organization's main journal. Every two years, it is made available. It is an extensive analysis of changes in both global biodiversity and environmental health. It monitors shifts in the relative richness of populations of wild species all around the world. Since the 2020 LPR was published, 11,011

Mission LiFE (Lifestyle for Environment)

Mission LiFE (Lifestyle for Environment) At the Statue of Unity in Gujarat, Prime Minister Narendra Modi introduced "Mission LiFE" (Lifestyle for Environment) in the presence of U.N. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres. About A new movement for sustainable and healthy living is called Mission LiFE. Mission LiFE will make the battle against climate change democratic with the help of each individual. It will assist in addressing the world's and humanity's main chal

Increasing the Biosphere's Footprint

Increasing the Biosphere's Footprint On November 3, 2022, the first 'International Day for Biosphere Reserves' will be held. More information about the World Network of Biosphere Reserves  (WNBR) UNESCO established the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) in 1971. The World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) is a network of internationally designated protected areas known as biosphere reserves that aim to demonstrate a harmonious relationship between people

Conservation of Wetlands

Conservation of Wetlands Every aspect of the Earth's environment has been impacted by humans in this Anthropocene period. The loss of Shallow Wetlands like lakes and ponds is becoming a serious worry as a result of these human-induced changes. The most recent period in Earth's history when human activity began to have a significant impact on the planet's climate and ecology is referred to as the Anthropocene Epoch. This term refers to an unofficial unit of geologic time.

Arittapatti Village:Biodiversity Heritage Site

Arittapatti Village: Biodiversity Heritage Site In accordance with Section 37 of the Biodiversity Diversity Act, 2002, the Government of Tamil Nadu published a notification designating Arittapatti Village in Melur in the Madurai district as a biodiversity heritage site. The Biodiversity Heritage site is the first site to be nominated in the Southern State and is located on a 193.21 hectare parcel of land. The local residents' involvement in biodiversity and conservation initi

Nagoya Protocol

Nagoya Protocol The Nagoya Protocol has yet to provide benefits to indigenous populations in Mexico. Concerning Nagoya Protocol A supplementary agreement to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization (ABS). It offers a clear legal framework for the efficient realisation of one of the three goals of the CBD: the equitable and fair distribution of g

Kunming Montreal Biodiversity Framework (GBF) adopted

Kunming Montreal Biodiversity Framework (GBF) adopted at COP15 The UN Convention on Biological Diversity's 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) has accepted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF).  188 of 196 member governments agreed on a new framework to halt the sharp and steady loss of biological species. These governments, supported by the U.S. and the Vatican, who are not a party to the Convention, adopted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framewor

A new species of tiny Boa from Ecuador

A new species of tiny Boa from Ecuador In honor of an Indigenous campaigner, researchers have named a new species of dwarf boa that they found in the Amazon of Ecuador. About Dwarf Boa: The snake, which belonged to the Tropidophiidae family, was up to 20 centimeters long when it was discovered in northern Ecuador's cloud forest. Based on its outward characteristics and bone structure, Tropidophis cacuangoae can be distinguished from other reptiles of the same spe

Butterflies Adaption

Butterflies Adaption Many intriguing facets of butterflies' adaptation and evolution processes have just come to light  In the Western Ghats of Karnataka, a study on many species of butterflies and their mimicry characteristics was done. What are the Study's Highlights? The results were divided into three categories: The species that are poisonous to predators serve as models. Batesian Mimicry Species: Those that adopted poisonous or unappealing features

Nobel's Helen Butterfly

Nobel's Helen Butterfly Arunachal Pradesh just discovered India's newest butterfly. About: A Swallowtail butterfly that was previously known to live in Myanmar, southern China, and India has now been discovered in India for the first time. In Arunachal Pradesh's Namdapha National Park, it is discovered at three different sites between September 2019 and September 2021. It is a Papilio noblei, or Noble's Helen, butterfly, which is highly rare. Characterist

Senna Spectabilis

Senna Spectabilis Senna spectabilis, an exotic invasive plant that poses a serious danger to  Karela’s animal habitat, has been identified as the target of a management strategy developed by the state. According to the management plan, no attempt should be made to remove trees before a comprehensive replanting strategy and the necessary funding are in place. Senna spectabilis: What is it? The deciduous Senna spectabilis tree is indigenous to tropical Ameri

Save Wetlands Campaign

Save Wetlands Campaign The "Save Wetlands Campaign" was introduced by the Union Minister for Environment, Forestry, and Climate Change in Goa.           This campaign is set up as a "whole of society" effort to conserve wetlands, promoting positive social change at all societal levels and integrating all social classes. The campaign's goal: The campaign will involve educating people on the importance of wetlands over the course of t


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