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DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS

  • 19 October, 2022

  • 7 Min Read

China blocks India’s Bid

China blocks India’s Bid

China has obstructed efforts by India and the US to add Pakistan-based terrorists to the UN Security Council's 1267 list of terror organisations.

Major Points:

  • Terrorist groups and individuals: India offers a list of terrorists connected to Al Qaeda and ISIS for the UN Security Council to consider.
  • The 1267 list of terrorists linked to Al Qaeda and ISIS included key members of the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), including Talha Saeed, the son of Hafiz Saeed, and Shahid Mehmood, the deputy leader of a LeT front.
  • China tried to stop India and the U.S. from listing for the fourth and fifth times in the previous four months with this hold.
  • China's position: Although China requires some time to investigate these particular incidents, it hasn't altered its stance on international counterterrorism cooperation.

UNSC Resolution 1267 Sanctions Committee

  • In 1999, the 1267 committee was established (updated in 2011 and 2015).
  • Any UN member state may suggest including the name of a terrorist or terrorist organisation that has ties to Al Qaeda or ISIS.
  • In the past two decades, India has successfully advocated the listing of a number of terrorist organisations, including the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM).
  • Following the "no-objections" approach, a proposed listing will be added to the list once it has been approved.
  • Placing a hold: The listing cannot be adopted if any member of the Committee, which is made up of all UN Security Council members, sets a hold on it or expressly objects to it.
  • China can do this as long as it wants because it is a permanent member of the UN Security Council and has veto power.

China's Actions

  • Given the tight bilateral connections between the two nations, China has put holds on a number of listing proposals dating back to 2001, mostly pertaining to groups with headquarters in Pakistan and their leaders.
  • The main issue was China's opposition to Masood Azhar, the founder of the JeM, being listed.
  • Azhar was given to terrorists in 1999 after being freed from jail by India in exchange for hostages taken from Indian Airlines flight IC-814, which should have made it clear that Azhar was a terrorist himself.
  • Azhar was cited as the JeM's founder when the group was recognised at the UNSC in 2001, although he wasn't designated until later.
  • China continues blocking UNSC resolutions to name Masood Azhar as a global terrorist threat after the Parliament attack and the Mumbai 26/11 attacks, citing "inadequate information" about Azhar's terrorist acts in 2009, 2010, 2016, and 2017.
  • China finally released its hold in May 2019, three months after the Pulwama attacks that were linked to the JeM.

Options and Efforts of India

  • The UNSC terror lists have been one of the approaches that India has used to promote global agreement on transnational terrorism.
  • Pakistan is required by the sanctions as a UN member state to deny all listed entities access to money, weapons, and travel outside of its borders.
  • India has also pursued this with the Financial Action Task Force, which has put Pakistan on a "grey list" because of its failure to stop the financing of terrorism and money laundering between 2012 and 2015 and 2018 and 2022.
  • While Pakistan is probably going to be removed from that list this week, it will still be closely watched because it has had to take various counterterrorism measures on its own territory.

Terrorism

  • An offence that results in Death or significant bodily harm to any person. An offence to terrify a population or to force a government or an international organisation to conduct or refrain from doing any act.
  • Serious harm to public or private property, such as a public space, a government or state facility, a public transportation system, a facility used for infrastructure, or the environment.
  • A large economic loss has occurred or is projected to occur as a result of damage to property, locations, facilities, or systems.
  • It includes a variety of sophisticated threats, including foreign terrorist combatants, radicalised "lone wolves," organised terrorism in conflict zones, etc.

Factors Contributing to the Growth of Terrorism:

  • Safe havens and state sponsorship.
  • modern communication technologies.
  • sophisticated technology is available.
  • terrorist organisations' connections to the criminal underworld.

Impacts:

  • It seriously jeopardises international peace and security and undercuts the fundamental principles of growth, peace, and humanity.
  • Terrorist activities not only have a catastrophic human cost in terms of lives lost or permanently changed, but they also endanger political stability and economic and social advancement.
  • Often, terrorist attacks disregard international boundaries.
  • CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives) materials are used in terrorist attacks that have devastating effects on infrastructure and communities.

Global Action

  • The United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism (UNOCT) is responsible for leading and coordinating the UN system's efforts to prevent and combat terrorism and violent extremism worldwide.
  • Under UNOCT, the UN Counter-Terrorism Centre (UNCCT) encourages global collaboration in the fight against terrorism and assists the Member States in putting the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy into practise.
  • The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime's (UNODC) Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) is a key player in global efforts.
  • It strives to support the Member States in their efforts to ratify, enact, and put into effect the global legal framework against terrorism.

Steps India Has Taken

India has been at the forefront of international efforts to combat terrorism and has consistently taken an active part in the promotion and defence of human rights.It breaches the most fundamental human right, namely the right to life, and is a crime against humanity (Article 21).

  • India has taken attempts to create Joint Working Groups (JWGs) on security and counterterrorism issues with other nations.
  • Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLATs) have been signed on a bilateral basis with other nations to make it easier to conduct criminal investigations, gather evidence, transfer witnesses, locate proceeds of crime, and take other related actions.
  • At the 73rd session of the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in 2018, India emphasised its call for a Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT). It had the following primary goals:
    • to establish a common definition of terrorism that each member may incorporate into their respective criminal codes.
    • To outlaw all terrorist organisations and destroy their bases.
    • to bring separate charges against each and every terrorist.
    • to make international extradition a crime for cross-border terrorism.
  • India proposed an eight-point action plan to combat the scourge of terrorism in January 2021, on the 20th anniversary of UNSC Resolution 1373.
    • mobilising political determination to zealously fight terrorists
    • condemning the use of double standards in the war on terrorism.
    • the committees responsible for counterterrorism and sanctions should reform their working procedures.
    • firmly opposing exclusive thinking that divides people and undermines social cohesion.
    • Adding and removing people and organisations from the UN sanctions list objectively, without regard to their political or religious beliefs
    • recognising and resolving the connection between transnational organised crime and terrorism in its entirety.
    • combating the financing of terrorism.
    • Pay immediate attention to allocating enough money from the UN general budget to counterterrorism organisations.
  • The Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System significantly increases the ability of the Border Security Force (BSF) to identify and combat cross-border crimes such illegal infiltration, the smuggling of illegal products, human trafficking, and cross-border terrorism, among others.
  • Act of 1967 to Prevent Illegal Activities: It makes it possible to deal with terrorism, other associated issues, and some unlawful behaviours of people and organisations more effectively.
  • The National Investigation Agency is India's counterterrorism task force and has the authority to handle offences involving terrorism in all states without the governments' express consent.
  • Zero-Tolerance Policy Against Terrorism: India asks for zero-tolerance for terrorism and concentrates on creating an international plan to combat it.
  • Different Counter-Terrorism Operations: Operation Rakshak is a counterterrorism and counterinsurgency effort in Jammu and Kashmir in the year 1990

Way Forward

  • It is really disappointing that listing applications for some of the most renowned terrorists in the world have been put on hold despite being sincere and supported by evidence.
  • The regime of sanctions has never been less credible due to double standards and ongoing politicisation.
  • Strong and Reformed Institutions: In order to effectively address these new problems, multilateral institutions and mechanisms must be strengthened and reformed.
  • A concerted effort should be made to put pressure on nations that support state-sponsored terrorism by the nations most adversely affected by the scourge of terrorism.
  • Action that is Prompt and Appropriate: Following the gathering and sharing of intelligence, action that is prompt and appropriate is needed.

Read Also: Pressure and punishment: On conviction of Hafiz Saeed

Source: The Hindu


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