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Dams in China

Dams in China Part of: GS-II- International relations (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) Recently, a US-funded study has highlighted the possible impact of China’s dams on the Mekong river (known as Lancang river in China) and countries downstream. The study was published by the Sustainable Infrastructure Partnership in Bangkok and the Lower Mekong Initiative. The Lower Mekong Initiative is a US partnership with all the downstream count

The changing nature of Chinese diplomacy

The changing nature of Chinese diplomacy By, Vijay Gokhale is a former Foreign Secretary of India and a former Ambassador to China Introduction If U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt believed that if you “speak softly and carry a big stick: you will go far”, half a century later and many thousands of miles away, another man practised it. His name was Zhou Enlai. Persuasion and compromise If Mao Zedong represented the crude face of Chinese communism, then Zhou was the

China, better prepared for the post-COVID world

China, better prepared for the post-COVID world By,M.K. Narayanan is a former National Security Adviser and a former Governor of West Bengal Introduction Several weeks before the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, India’s Minister for External Affairs, S. Jaishankar, had observed that “what defines power and determines national standing is also no longer the same... Technology, connectivity and trade are at the heart of the new contestations....” The Minister could n

China suggests shift in BRI approach amid debt concerns

China suggests shift in BRI approach amid debt concerns Part of: GS-II- International issue (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) ‘We will focus on quality in the joint pursuit of the BRI’ Background China has hinted at a shift in how it will pursue its signature Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) amid growing concerns about debt repayments from many partner countries because of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Imp Points “We will focus on quality in

The dimming of a Chinese strongman’s aura

The dimming of a Chinese strongman’s aura By, Sujan R. Chinoy, a China specialist and former Ambassador, is currently the Director General of the Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi. The views expressed are personal Introduction # To the outside world, China seeks to project a picture of monolithic unity behind President Xi Jinping’s highly centralised leadership. However, media tropes point to a greater scrutiny of his role and leadership

China’s new code aims to curb land grabs

China’s new code aims to curb land grabs Part of: GS-II- China (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) It also focuses on giving greater independence to the country’s judiciary Farmers in China have faced forced evictions and illicit land grabs for decades — sources of social unrest that the government is finally trying to address in a major shake-up of its property law. Millions of hectares of rural land were taken away from farmers in the past three decades and given to develope

Pincer provocations? India-China-Pakistan 

Pincer provocations? India-China-Pakistan  GS- PAPER-II India and China India should not conflate the various threats to its security in the Kashmir-Ladakh region Although the latest news on the Ladakh front suggests that Chinese and Indian forces have begun to disengage in select areas, this does not detract from the reality that in the past few weeks Beijing and Islamabad are making coordinated efforts to challenge India’s presence in the Kashmir-Ladakh region. There is ste

Remaining non-aligned is good advice

Remaining non-aligned is good advice By, M.K. Narayanan is a former National Security Adviser and a former Governor of West Bengal Context # For weeks, the India-China stand-off dominated newspaper headlines, warning about the possibility of a major conflict along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the Ladakh and Sikkim sectors. # With both India and China agreeing to step back marginally from positions adopted at the beginning of May, and “reaching an agreement”, the n

India’s foreign relations and the course of history

India’s foreign relations and the course of history By, Chinmaya R. Gharekhan, a former Indian Ambassador to the United Nations, was Special Envoy for West Asia in the Manmohan Singh government Context * The Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s public and undisguised reference to China’s expansionism in his address to Indian troops last week, on July 3 in Ladakh was so obvious that the Chinese lost no time in rejecting the allegation.   Down memory lane * The

New national security law for Hong Kong

New national security law for Hong Kong GS-PAPER-2 IR China China has unveiled a new national security law for Hong Kong. The new law was passed by the Chinese parliament unanimously. It was subsequently made a part of Hong Kong’s Basic Law. The law will greatly expand Beijing’s power in Hong Kong. New law target protesters? The new law has widely defined some offences which punishes the protestors with harsh punishments. The offences include Secession, Sub

Towards national security and peace in Hong Kong

Towards national security and peace in Hong Kong By, Sun Weidong is China’s Ambassador to India (This article is written by China’s Ambassador to India about the justifications of the Chinese National Security Bill in the Hong Kong region. This article can be used for analysis of foreign policies which can be important for Political Science Optional Students as well as GS Mains Paper 2) Context: -   The promulgation and implementation of the Law of the People&rs

Australia rejects China’s sea claims

Australia rejects China’s sea claims Context: Australia’s formal declaration to the UN on the South China Sea dispute. In a formal declaration to the UN, Australia has rejected China’s territorial and maritime claims in the South China Sea. Australia has held that there is no legal basis for China’s historic claims in the South China Sea. Australia- U.S. compact: Australia’s declaration to the UN comes after the U.S. Secretary of State declared

China’s Presence in South America

China’s Presence in South America GS-PAPER-2 CHINA-OBOR (Mains) Recently, Ecuador has expressed an official discomfort over the sighting of a flotilla of 260 mostly Chinese fishing vessels near the Galapagos archipelago (a part of Ecuador). The flotilla also consisted of some Liberia and Panama-flagged vessels which was detected in an international water corridor situated between two areas of Ecuadorian jurisdiction– 200 miles away from b

Isolating China, as proposition and the reality

Isolating China, as proposition and the reality By, M.K. Narayanan is a former National Security Adviser and a former Governor of West Bengal Introduction The latest round of talks, August 2, between the Military Commanders of India and China, did not produce any breakthrough, and the situation along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the Ladakh sector thus remains essentially unchanged. All that is evident is that China has indicated a willingness to resile from occupying territ

China-Russia ties as a major determinant

China-Russia ties as a major determinant By, Vijay Gokhale is a former Foreign Secretary of India and a former Ambassador to Germany and to China Context In June 2019, Chinese President Xi Jinping described Russian President Vladimir Putin, as “my best friend and colleague”. Both countries had a great bonhomie during China’s independence on 1949. The key triangle The triangular relationship between America, China and Russia has, for the most part, shap

The great greying of China

The great greying of China Context: The article examines the effect of China’s one child policy (OCP) on its population structure and the economy. China’s one child policy (OCP) was conceived by Deng Xiaoping in 1979. The one-child policy was part of a birth planning program designed to control the size of the rapidly growing population of the People’s Republic of China. It set a limit on the number of children for a couple. Impacts of OCP: The total fer

China’s rise and fall at the UN

China’s rise and fall at the UN Context The editorial analyses various reasons as to why the time is opportune for India to push for institutional changes and reformed multilateralism in the global system. The United Nations turned 75 in 2020. China’s fall at the UN: India defeated China in the elections for a seat on the UN’s Commission on the Status of Women (CSW). This was the first such victory in a decade. China’s candidate had lost to a Singa

Analysis of China's policies

Analysis of China’s Policies What is the Hong Kong issue? Hong Kong became one of the most significant arenas where the Communist Party of China came down with full might. The special administration region, which enjoys autonomy, had been on the boil since June 2019 over a legislation (which was later scrapped) that would allow the local government to extradite criminals to the mainland. Demonstrators had resorted to vandalism over the law, an act that the Communist Party of

Security Challenges for India: China and Pakistan - UPSC

Security Challenges for India: China and Pakistan - UPSC Context: UPSC GS Paper II and Paper III: Security Challenges for India and India-China relations (Prelims Mains Interview) Till recently, any mention of a two-front war evoked two contrasting opinions. India’s military was firmly of the view that a collusive China-Pakistan military threat was a real possibility, and we must develop capabilities to counter this challenge. On the other hand, the political class in genera

China to launch 3rd Aircraft carrier in 2021

China to launch 3rd Aircraft carrier in 2021 The launching of China’s third and largest aircraft carrier is likely to take place next year, with a renewed push to take forward military modernisation plans amid a number of territorial and maritime disputes. China one year ago launched its second aircraft carrier, the Shandong, which was the first to be built at home. It joined the Liaoning, which was developed by retrofitting a Soviet-era cruiser and commissioned in 2012. The Shan

China amends National Defence Law

China amends National Defence Law China’s President Xi Jinping has signed an order that has amended China’s National Defence Law, giving the Central Military Commission (CMC), which he heads, greater power in mobilising resources to protect a new and broader definition of what constitutes the national interest. The revised regulations on military equipment, which are effective as of January 1, focus on “war preparedness and combat capabilities”, the official Xinhu

Geopolitics, China and India

Geopolitics, China and India In the murky and chameleon-like world of contemporary geopolitics, adopting a sceptical approach to analyses and evaluation is often the best way forward. Nine months is a reasonable period to arrive at a holistic and reasonably acceptable evaluation of crises across domains. That the world was caught napping and brought to its knees by the COVID-19 pandemic is an undisputable proposition. In the grey zone at the global level is the absence of a definit

India – China Border disputes

India – China Border disputes Konchok Stanzin, a councillor from Chushul in Eastern Ladakh, says Chinese infrastructure that could not be seen from border villages earlier is now clearly visible as China continues to hold positions in areas within India’s perception of the Line of Actual Control. In an interview to The Hindu, Mr. Stanzin said residents had witnessed a large number of Chinese tents, bunkers and vehicles very close to the border villages in Chushul, Merak and K

India – China Trade relations

India – China Trade relations India’s trade with China declined last year to the lowest level since 2017, with the trade deficit narrowing to a five-year low as the country imported far fewer goods from its northern neighbour. Bilateral trade slid 5.6% to $87.6 billion, according to new figures from China’s General Administration of Customs (GAC). India’s imports from China shrank by 10.8% to $66.7 billion, marking the lowest level of inbound shipments sinc

China - Taiwan issue

Taiwan reports Chinese air incursions Eight Chinese bomber planes and four fighter jets entered the southwestern corner of Taiwan’s air defence identification zone on Saturday, and Taiwan’s Air Force deployed missiles to “monitor” the incursion, the island’s Defence Ministry said. China, which claims Taiwan as its own territory, has conducted almost daily flights over the waters between the southern part of Taiwan and the Taiwan-controlled Pratas Islands in

India China Ties: Way Forward

India China Ties: Way Forward ‘Recognition of mutual respect, mutual sensitivities and mutual interests is key to repairing India-China relations, after what he called a year of “exceptional stress” in a relationship “profoundly disturbed” by the border crisis. China’s actions last year had “not only signalled a disregard for commitments about minimising troop levels” but also “showed a willingness to breach the peace and tranquillity

India – China Trade relations

India – China Trade relations China still remains the largest source of critical imports for India, from mobile phone components to pharmaceutical ingredients, and India is working on a multi-pronged strategy to reduce this reliance, which is a bigger concern than the imbalance in trade. The trade deficit is not in dollars, it is in overdependence. “A mobile phone requires 85% content coming from one country. If China were to stop the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs

India – China Border disputes: Pangong Tso

India – China Border disputes: Pangong Tso India and China have completed disengagement on the north and south banks of Pangong Tso (lake) in eastern Ladakh, and the 10th round of Corps Commander talks are to be held in Moldo on the Chinese side to discuss pullbacks from other friction areas. Disengagement was fully complete as per an agreement and had been jointly verified by both sides. In line with the agreement, all landforms have been restored to that as existed before

India – China border disputes

India – China border disputes The disengagement on the south bank of Pangong Tso (lake) will see Indian troops moving to their post in Chushul and Chinese troops to the Moldo garrison. In the next phase, additional Indian troops will move further down, around 40 km, to Tara-Rhongo post and Chinese troops to Dorjo, a senior government official told The Hindu. The main phase of disengagement on both banks of the lake is expected to begin on Saturday. “We will verify each

Dams on Brahmaputra River Cleared in China's 5-Year Plan

A draft of 14th China’s new Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) has permitted first dams to be built on the lower basin of Yarlung Zangbo river (Brahmaputra’s name in Tibet), before it flows into India. It calls for building a hydropower base on the lower reaches of Yarlung Zangbo river and clean energy bases in the Jinsha River. Jinsha River is the upper course of Yangtze river in western China. The project is also listed along with the Sichuan-Tibet railway and the national wat

Russia-China relations

Russia-China relations Russia’s relations with China were currently at “the best in their entire history”, Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said as he began a key visit to China on Monday. The visit comes shortly after the China-U.S. dialogue in Alaska and follows the first leaders’ summit of the Quad — India, Australia, Japan and the U.S. — held virtually.   “In response, Russia and China are promoting a constructive and unifying a

India’s demands of oxygen concentrators from China

India’s demands of oxygen concentrators from China India’s demands India has asked Chinese authorities to ensure prices for key medical supplies remain stable as costs for oxygen concentrators and other critical goods have surged on the back of rising demand. The supply chain should remain open and product prices should remain stable Since April, orders for at least 40,000 oxygen concentrators have been placed by Indian companies with Chinese firms, of which 21,000 have

China- Taiwan issue

China- Taiwan issue Taiwan reports largest incursion by Chinese forces As many as 28 Chinese air force aircraft, including fighters and nuclear-capable bombers, entered Taiwan’s air defence identification zone (ADIZ) on Tuesday, the island’s government said. It is the largest reported incursion to date. Taiwan has complained over the last few months of repeated missions by China’s air force near the self-ruled island, concentrated in the southwestern part of its air

Shenzhou-12 Manned Mission of China

Shenzhou-12 Manned Mission of China Recently, a Chinese spaceship “Shenzhou-12” carrying a three-person crew docked with China’s new space station module Tianhe-1. The first group of Chinese astronauts entered the country’s under-construction space station, a major step in China’s plans to have a fully functioning station by next year. Shenzhou-12 spaceship, carrying the three astronauts, completed an “automated rendezvous and docking” with the

Two Child Policy of China failed! China to allow a third child!

Two Child Policy of China failed! China to allow a third child! China will for the first time allow couples to have a third child, in a further relaxation of family planning rules five years after a “two-child policy” largely failed to boost birth rates. The announcement followed a meeting of the 25-member Politburo, chaired by China’s President and Communist Party of China General Secretary Xi Jinping, “to hear reports on major policy measures to actively addres

China’s population growth slows to slowest rate in decades

China’s population growth slows to slowest rate in decades China’s once-in-a-decade population census has recorded a slowing population growth rate that will likely see China’s population peak — and be overtaken by India’s — by as early as 2025, experts said, with the number of births falling for the fourth consecutive year. The seventh census, releasedby the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) in Beijing, noted 12 million babies were born last year, t

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