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  • 18 October, 2022

  • 6 Min Read

Compressed Biogas (CBG)

Compressed Biogas (CBG)

According to the Union Petroleum Minister, Compressed BioGas (CBG) is essential, and the government is taking all appropriate measures to advance the CBG ecosystem.


  • In Lehragaga, Sangrur in the province of Punjab, the Union Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas and Housing & Urban Affairs officially opened the largest compressed biogas facility in Asia.
  • The Sangrur CBG facility served as the launch pad for India's grand strategy for a CBG-based rural economy.
  • One of Germany's top bioenergy firms, Verbio AG, invested around Rs. 220 crores in FDI to commission the Plant.

The usefulness of CBG Plant

  • Employment Creation: The Sangrur CBG Plant is anticipated to provide 390 direct jobs and 585 indirect jobs, which would help farmers by increasing their income.
  • Reduce Carbon Footprint: The facility will also lessen the burning of stubble on 40,000 to 45,000 acres of land, which will result in an annual decrease of 150,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions and cleaner air due to less air pollution.
  • Climate Goals Achieved: It will help India reach its COP26 climate change goals, which include reducing global carbon emissions by one billion tonnes by 2030 and reaching net zero emissions by 2070.
  • The Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) scheme's 2018 goal of creating an ecosystem in India for the generation of CBG from various waste and biomass sources will be achieved. Under the programme, 38 CBG / Biogas Plants have already been put into operation.
  • Enhancing Capability: The Sangrur factory, which covers an area of about 20 acres, currently produces around 6 TPD of CBG and has the capacity to process 300 TPD of paddy straw to generate 33 TPD of CBG utilising 8 digesters that are 10,000 cubic metres each.
  • The output of FOM (Fermented Organic Manure), which can be utilised for organic farming, will increase to 600–650 tonnes per day.
  • Facilitate "Make in India": It will intensify efforts to promote domestic production of CBG Plant equipment like cascades, compressors, and dispensers and increase "Make in India" opportunities throughout the country's manufacturing sector.
  • Convergence of programmes and advantages: The plant was opened for farmers' welfare after the occurrence of the following:
  • PM's release of the PM-KISAN direct benefit transfer scheme's 12th tranche, totalling Rs. 16,000 crores
  • The PM launched 600 Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samruddhi Kendras (PMKSK) to act as fertiliser sales locations and as a way to forge close ties with farmers.
  • Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya's debut The Jan Urvarak Pariyojana-One Nation One Fertilizer programme provides farmers with affordable, high-quality fertiliser with the "Bharat" brand.

SATAT (Sustainable Alternative to Affordable Transportation) plan

  • The SATAT programme, introduced by the government in 2018, intends to:
  • Reach the goal of 15 million metric tonnes (MMT) of CBG production from 5000 CBG plants by 2023–2024.
  • Supporting farmers will empower and liberate the rural economy.
  • Develop initiatives that will help entrepreneurs and vehicle users.
  • Reduce India's reliance on imported crude oil to increase domestic energy output and self-sufficiency.
  • effective control of carbon emissions and farm stubble burning that contribute to urban air pollution
  • Fermented Organic Manure (FOM), produced by CBG plants, is used to promote organic farming.
  • Support India as it leads the world's shift to renewable energy.

National Biofuels Policy for 2018:

In the upcoming years, the Policy seeks to enhance the use of biofuels in the nation's transportation and energy sectors. The following advantages are also intended to be gained.

  • reduction in crude and LNG imports, resulting in significant currency savings
  • Utilizing, promoting, and developing domestic feedstock for use in the manufacturing of biofuels
  • replace fossil fuels more frequently while advancing national energy security
  • Pollution reduction and climate change mitigation
  • sustainable creation of new employment opportunities
  • encouragement for the use of cutting-edge technologies in the production of biofuels

Process of CBG Formation

  • Raw Material: Anaerobic decomposition of waste/biomass sources such as agricultural residue, bovine manure, sugarcane press mud, municipal solid waste, and sewage treatment plant waste results in the production of biogas.
  • Purification: The biogas is compressed into compressed biogas (CBG), which has methane (CH4) content of more than 90%, after being purified to remove hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapour.

Significance of CBG as a fuel

  • CBG can be used as a green, renewable car fuel because it has a calorific value and other characteristics that are similar to those of CNG.
  • Given the volume of biomass available in the nation, it can thus replace CNG in automotive, industrial, and commercial locations.

Way Forward

  • According to the Union Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas, CBG plants represent a significant advancement in achieving a win-win outcome for farmers and the environment.
  • India's transition towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) like these will be aided by the SATAT programme and CBG plants.
  • SDG 7-Affordable and clean energy
  • SDG 11-Sustainable cities and communities
  • SDG 12-Responsible consumption and production]
  • SDG 13-Climate Action

Source: PIB


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