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DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS

GS-II :
  • 24 January, 2020

  • 4 Min Read

Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI­-2019)

Syllabus subtopic: Role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

Prelims and Mains focus: About the key highlights of the index; India’s performance; About Transparency International

News: Transparency International released the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI­2019) on Thursday.

About the Index

The 2019 CPI draws on 13 surveys and expert assessments to measure public sector corruption in 180 countries and territories, giving each a score from zero (highly corrupt) to 100 (very clean).

Key highlights

  • The top ranked countries are New Zealand and Denmark, with scores of 87 each, followed by Finland (86), Singapore (85), Sweden (85) and Switzerland (85).

  • India’s ranking has slipped from 78 to 80 compared to the previous year. Its score of 41 out of 100 remains the same.

  • In democracies such as India and Australia, unfair and opaque political financing, undue influence in decision-making and lobbying by powerful corporate interest groups have resulted in stagnation or a decline in the control of corruption.

  • The report has revealed that a majority of countries are showing little to no improvement in tackling corruption.

  • It also shows corruption is more pervasive in countries where big money can flow freely into electoral campaigns and where governments listen only to the voices of wealthy or well­connected individuals.

  • In the Asia Pacific region, the average score is 45, after many consecutive years of an average score of 44, which “illustrates general stagnation” in the region.

  • China has improved its position from 87 to 80 with a score of 41 out of 100, a two­point jump.

  • Despite the presence of high performers like New Zealand (87), Singapore (85), Australia (77), Hong Kong (76) and Japan (73), the Asia Pacific region hasn’t witnessed substantial progress in anti­corruption efforts or results. In addition, low performers like Afghanistan (16), North Korea (17) and Cambodia (20) continue to highlight serious challenges in the region.

  • According to Transparency International, while often seen as an engine of the global economy, in terms of political integrity and governance, the Asia Pacific region performs only marginally better than the global average.

  • Many countries see economic openness as a way forward, however, governments across the region, from China to Cambodia to Vietnam, continue to restrict participation in public affairs, silence dissenting voices and keep decision­making out of public scrutiny.

  • Given these issues, it comes as no surprise that vibrant economic powers like China (41), Indonesia (40), Vietnam (37), the Philippines (34) and others continue to struggle to tackle corruption.

About Transparency International (TI)

  • TI, a nonpartisan, nonprofit nongovernmental organization (NGO) founded in Berlin in 1993 to expose corruption and reduce its harmful effects around the world, especially on the poor and underprivileged.

  • TI consists of a global network of approximately 100 national chapters devoted to fighting corruption in their home countries. Headquarters are in Berlin.

  • TI does not conduct investigations into corruption itself but instead brings together officials in the areas of government, business, civil society, and the media to promote transparency in private and public affairs and to lobby for anticorruption measures.

  • TI targets corruption at every level, from local governments to multinational corporations, in keeping with its belief that corruption creates and perpetuates poverty, weakens democracy, distorts national and international trade, endangers national security, and threatens natural resources around the world.

  • It focuses on five areas of concern:
  1. corruption in politics,
  2. corruption in the private sector,
  3. corruption in public contracting,
  4. poverty and development, and
  5. international anticorruption conventions.

  • TI is governed by a board of directors, which is elected at an annual meeting of national chapters and individual members.

  • It publishes several annual reports, including the
  1. Global Corruption Report,
  2. Global Corruption Barometer, and
  3. Corruption Perceptions Index, which ranks countries by perceived level of corruption based on surveys of experts.
  4. It also publishes books on specific regions and issues Integrity Awards to individuals who expose corruption in their countries.

  • The organization is primarily funded by government development agencies and foundations. It also receives project funding from international organizations, donations from private companies, and lesser income from publication sales and honoraria.

Source: The Hindu


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