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DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS

  • 17 November, 2022

  • 5 Min Read

Dengue

Dengue

  • According to one study, the ongoing spread of Dengue fever in India has been attributed to a late monsoon withdrawal.
  • Dengue transmission is closely linked to three key factors: rainfall, humidity, and temperature, which determine where dengue spreads and how quickly it spreads.

What are the Study's Highlights?

  • Each year, the number of months suitable for dengue transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitos in India has increased to 5.6 months.
  • Between 1951-1960 and 2012-2021, it accounts for a 1.69% increase.
  • According to the study, future climatic changes will cause "expansion of Aedes aegypti in the hot arid regions of the Thar Desert and Aedes albopictus in the cold upper Himalayas."
  • Dengue is spread by the bite of two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.
  • Aedes aegypti is currently prevalent in the southern peninsula, eastern coastline, north-eastern states, and northern plains.
  • The eastern and western coastlines, as well as the northeastern states and the lower Himalayas, are dominated by Aedes albopictus.

About dengue fever:

  • Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus (Genus Flavivirus), which is spread by several female mosquito species in the genus Aedes, most notably Aedes aegypti.
  • This mosquito also spreads chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika virus.
  • The virus that causes dengue has four distinct but closely related serotypes (separate groups within a species of microorganisms that all share a similar characteristic) (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4).
  • Symptoms include a high fever that comes on suddenly, severe headaches, pain behind the eyes, severe bone, joint, and muscle pain, and so on.
  • Diagnosis and Treatment: A blood test is used to diagnose dengue infection.
  • There is no specific treatment for dengue infection.
  • Dengue fever has become increasingly common in recent decades, with the vast majority of cases going unreported, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • According to the WHO, 39 million dengue virus infections occur each year, with 9.6 million showing symptoms.
  • According to National Center for Vector Borne Diseases Control data, India had 63,280 dengue cases as of September 2022.
  • Controlling Dengue with Bacteria: Recently, researchers from the World Mosquito Program successfully controlled dengue in Indonesia by using mosquitos infected with Wolbachia bacteria.
  • The scientists infected some mosquitos with Wolbachia bacteria and then released them in the city, where they bred with local mosquitos until nearly all mosquitos in the area carried Wolbachia bacteria. This is referred to as the Population Replacement Strategy.
  • After 27 months, the researchers discovered that the incidence of dengue was 77% lower in areas where Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes were released, compared to areas where such deployments were not made.
  • Dengue Vaccine: The dengue vaccine CYD-TDV, also known as Dengvaxia, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2019, making it the first dengue vaccine to receive regulatory approval in the United States.
  • Dengvaxia is a live, attenuated dengue virus that must be administered to people aged 9 to 16 who have had a previous dengue infection and live in endemic areas.
  • Indian Immunologicals Limited (IIL), a vaccine manufacturer, is developing India's first Dengue vaccine and has received approval for a Phase-1 trial.
  • The vaccine is being developed in partnership with the National Institutes of Health in the United States.

Source: The Hindu


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