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  • 27 October, 2022

  • 6 Min Read

Explained: Self Reliant India

Explained: Self Reliant India

The Prime Minister recently emphasised the importance of promoting indigenous products and self-sufficiency.

More on the news

  • Self-sufficiency:Promoting indigenous products and self-sufficiency is important for prosperity, and by adopting them, one can keep India's traditional art, culture, and civilisation alive.

About Vijay Vallabh Surishwar, a Jain saint:

  • The Prime Minister was speaking at a gathering to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of Jain saint Vijay Vallabh Surishwar.
  • The Union Culture Ministry organised the event.
  • A commemorative postage stamp and coin honouring Acharya Surishwar were also released as part of the celebration.
  • Historical significance: The Prime Minister stated that Acharya Surishwar's insistence on peace and harmony could be seen even during the horrors of Partition.
  • He noted that during the freedom struggle, Mahatma Gandhi followed the Jain gurus' path of "aparigraha," or renunciation.


  • Aparigraha, also known as non-possession, is a philosophy that holds that no one or thing possesses anything.
  • The virtue of non-possessiveness, non-grasping, or non-greediness is known as aparigraha in Jainism.
  • Aparigraha is the control of all attachments as well as renunciation.
  • This version of aparigraha is distinct because it is part of Gandhiji's active nonviolent resistance to India's social problems.

What exactly is self-reliance?

  • Self-reliance is defined as an individual's, a household's, or a community's social and economic ability to meet basic needs (such as protection, food, water, shelter, personal safety, health, and education) in a sustainable and dignified manner.

India's potential for self-sufficiency:

The labour force:

  • Self-sufficiency is dependent on increasing the income and productivity of the majority of the labour force.
  • There are two approaches to this.
    • To begin, incentivize farmers to shift away from grain-based farming and toward cash crops, horticulture, and livestock products.
    • Second, shift the workforce away from agriculture and toward manufacturing.
  • India can only become self-sufficient if it takes advantage of its best endowment — 900 million working-age people with an average age of 27 — and appropriates its demographic dividend, as China did.

Position in the world:

  • India is in a unique position at a time when all other manufacturing behemoths — Japan, the EU, the US, and even South Korea and China — are ageing in lockstep.
  • Most of these countries have exited low-end labor-intensive manufacturing, and countries such as Bangladesh, Vietnam, Mexico, and others have taken their place.

Development and research:

  • State-funded R&D, including basic research, by PSUs, research institutions, and universities must be significantly increased, far exceeding the current paltry 1% of GDP.


  • Finally, India's meagre public expenditure on education must be significantly increased (as opposed to current privatisation trends, which would only reduce access), including in skill development.
  • Without widespread access to high-quality public education, no country has achieved self-sufficiency.

Initiatives by the government to promote self-sufficiency:

Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan:

  • The vision of new India is the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan, or Self-reliant India campaign.
  • The goal is to make the country and its people self-sufficient in all aspects.
  • Aatma Nirbhar Bharat is built on five pillars: economy, infrastructure, system, vibrant demography, and demand.
  • The Finance Minister announced government reforms and enablers in seven sectors as part of the Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan.
  • In this regard, the government implemented several bold reforms, including agricultural supply chain reforms, rational tax systems, simple and clear laws, capable human resources, and a strong financial system.

Atmanirbhar Bharat Rozgar Yojana:

  • Its goal is to increase job creation and reduce the socioeconomic impact of the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • Features: Under ABRY, the Government of India credits both the employees' share (12% of wages) and the employers' share (12% of wages) of contribution payable for a period of two years, or only the employees' share, depending on the employment strength of the EPFO registered establishments.

Atmanirbhar Swasth Bharat Yojana:

  • The goal is to improve India's critical healthcare network in both urban and rural areas.
  • Create an IT-enabled disease surveillance system by connecting laboratories at the block, district, regional, and national levels.
  • The Integrated Health Information Portal will connect labs.
  • Features:
  • To assist 17,788 rural Health and Wellness Centers in ten 'high focus' states, as well as to establish 11,024 urban Health and Wellness Centers.
  • It supplements the National Health Mission.
  • Exclusive Critical Care Hospital Blocks with a population of over five lakh.

Make in India:

  • According to the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, the programme, which aims for self-sufficiency or being 'aatmanirbhar,' has significant accomplishments across 27 sectors, including strategic sectors such as manufacturing and services.
  • Make in India, the Government of India's flagship program that aims to:
    • Encourage investment,
      • Encourage innovation,
      • Improve skill development,
      • Keep your intellectual property safe.
      • Make India a digital country.
      • Develop positive relationships with various countries.
      • Make available employment opportunities.

Make in India" had three stated goals:

  • to increase the manufacturing sector's annual growth rate to 12-14%;
  • To add 100 million new manufacturing jobs to the economy by 2022;
  • To increase the manufacturing sector's contribution to GDP to 25% by 2022. (later revised to 2025).

Startup India

  • Startup India was launched in 2016 as a call to the nation's innovators, entrepreneurs, and thinkers to take the lead in driving India's sustainable growth and creating large-scale employment opportunities.
  • More than 65,000 startups had registered on the entrepreneurial portal.
  • Of these, 40 recently achieved 'unicorn' status, bringing the total to 90 as of today.

Read Also: Gross Domestic Product vs Gross Value Added

Source: PIB

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