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  • 23 November, 2022

  • 5 Min Read

Global Offshore Wind Alliance (GOWA)

Global Offshore Wind Alliance (GOWA)

  • At COP27, nine more nations just joined the Global Offshore Wind Alliance.
  • Belgium, Colombia, Germany, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK, and the US are the nine new nations.
  • Australia declares its membership in the international offshore wind alliance.

What is GOWA, or the Global Offshore Wind Alliance?

  • The expansion of offshore wind was established to address the energy and climate challenges.
  • It was founded by the Global Wind Energy Council, Denmark, and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).
  • In order to provide a reliable and inclusive forum for the entire wind energy industry on a global scale, GWEC was founded in 2005.
  • The alliance is supported by a number of organizations, each of which is promoting offshore wind in its area.
  • In order to attain net zero energy production and keep the increase in global temperatures to 1.5 degrees Celsius, the International Energy Agency (IEA) predict that offshore wind capacity will need to reach over 2000 GW in 2050, up from just over 60 GW now.
  • To accomplish this goal, GOWA will work to accelerate expansion so that, by the end of 2030, there will be at least 380 GW installed capacity worldwide.

About Offshore wind energy:

  • Onshore wind farms, which are substantial installations of wind turbines located on land, and offshore wind farms, which are installations located in bodies of water, are the two main "types" of wind energy used today.
  • The term "offshore wind energy" describes the installation of wind farms inside of bodies of water. To produce electricity, they use the sea winds. These wind farms may employ floating wind turbines or turbines with solid foundations.
  • A floating wind turbine is constructed in deeper waters where its foundation is attached to the seabed as opposed to a fixed-foundation turbine, which is constructed in shallow water. The development of floating wind farms is very young.
  • Offshore wind farms must be 50 feet below the surface of the water and at least 200 nautical miles from any coastline
  • Electricity generated by offshore wind turbines is sent back to land via cables sunk in the ocean floor.

Indian Wind Energy Situation:

  • In March 2021, India's annual wind energy production totaled 39.2 gigawatts (GW). It is anticipated that another 20 GW will be added during the following five years.
  • Wind generation has experienced a compound annual growth rate between 2010 and 2020 of 11.39%, while installed capacity has experienced a growth rate of 8.78%.
  • The seven states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu contain more than 95% of the commercially exploitable resources.

The need for focusing on offshore wind energy in India:

  • Less availability of area on land: In India, where land is limited and the population is increasing, large wind farms positioned over water bodies will be vital.
  • High efficiency: Offshore wind turbines are more efficient compared to onshore turbines. Wind speed over water bodies is high & is consistent in direction. As a result, offshore wind farms generate more electricity per installed capacity. Also fewer turbines are required to produce the same capacity of energy as compared to onshore ones.
  • High reliability: As offshore wind farms have a higher capacity utilization factor (CUF), they allow for longer operating hours. Also they are usually located near to the cities and load centers. Thus, transmission losses are minimized.
  • Lesser disputes: Offshore wind farms prevent social conflicts which arise due to competitive land uses.
  • Environmental benefits: As any other renewable energy source, offshore wind farms do not require the consumption of water to operate properly, and also do not emit any environmental pollutants or greenhouse gas emissions during its operation thereby helping us in fighting climate change& will pave way for the sustainable development.
  • To meet INDC: It will help in achieving India’s target of 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030 as part of Paris agreement.
  • Energy security: Domestic offshore wind energy production will reduce the need for energy imports and diversify our energy basket and consequently reduce our dependence on exporter countries.

Policies pertaining to wind power:

  • National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy's major goal is to establish a framework for the promotion of large grid-connected wind-solar PV hybrid systems for the most effective and efficient use of wind and solar resources, transmission infrastructure, and land.
  • National Offshore Wind Energy Policy: The National Offshore Wind Energy Policy, which was notified in October 2015, aims to promote offshore wind energy along India's 7600 km of coastline in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).

What Advantages Do Offshore Wind Energy Sources Offer?

  • Over bodies of water, the wind is swift and always blows in the same direction. As a result, per installed capacity, offshore wind farms produce more electricity.
  • In comparison to onshore ones, fewer offshore turbines are needed to produce the same amount of energy.
  • The CUF (capacity utilisation factor) of offshore wind farms is higher than that of onshore wind farms. As a result, offshore wind power permits more operational time.
  • The average output power divided by the maximum power capability is the formula for calculating a wind turbine's CUF.
  • Larger and taller offshore wind turbines can be constructed, increasing energy production.
  • Furthermore, neither hills nor structures impede the wind's movement.

Source: The Economic Times

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