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  • 26 September, 2022

  • 7 Min Read

Group of Four (G4) on UNSC Reform

Group of Four (G4) on UNSC Reform

Under the auspices of The Group of Four (G4), the External Affairs Minister of India met with his counterparts from Brazil, Germany, and Japan.

Details about the news

  • G4 discussed concerns pertaining to the UN Security Council reform during a meeting that took place alongside the 77th session of the UNGA (UNSC).
  • The UNSC reform and G4 members' permanent participation in the body are the group's main areas of interest.

Who are the G-4 countries, or the Group of Four?

  • Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan make up the G4, a group that aspires to join the UNSC permanently.
  • The G4 nations are supporting one another's applications for UNSC permanent membership.
  • The G4 countries often get together after the yearly high-level UN General Assembly session.

Highlights of the meeting

Moving Reforms Forward:

  • The group reaffirmed their commitment to advancing reform during the most recent meeting.
  • They also expressed disappointment about the lack of development in this area.
  • Global concerns are complex, and reforms are required.
  • The G4 believed that immediate reform of the U.N. decision-making bodies was necessary due to the complexity and interconnectedness of world affairs.
  • No real advancement and a lack of transparency
  • G4 ministers voiced worry that the Inter-Governmental Negotiations did not achieve "significant progress" during the 76th Session of the U.N. General Assembly, the year-long session that recently ended (IGN).
  • The G4 claims that this session was limited by a lack of transparency.

Why are UNSC reforms necessary?

  • Ironically, the UN only has 5 permanent members despite representing a much bigger world.
  • The Security Council's current membership reflects post-World War II realities and is therefore out of step with the shifting global power dynamics.
  • Big powers were granted privileges when the UNSC was first established in order to include them on the council. This was essential for both the organization's smooth operation and to prevent collapse similar to that of the League of Nations.
  • Africa, South America, and Far Eastern Asia are not represented in the council's permanent membership.

Why does India want a permanent seat on the UN Security Council?


  • India never requested permanent membership in the UN Security Council throughout the first 40 years of its existence.
  • Even in 1993, when India sent the UN a written proposal in response to a resolution on reforms passed by the General Assembly, it did not make clear that it wanted permanent membership for itself.
  • India has only begun to request permanent participation in the council in the recent several years.
  • Given the magnitude of its economy, population, and status as the world's largest democracy, India deserves a permanent seat on the council.
  • India has grown to be a significant role not just in Asia but also globally.
  • If India were a permanent member of the Security Council, it would be a more representative body.


  • The ability to veto measures immense power.
  • India has been attempting to classify Masood Azhar as a global terrorist since 2009. China's veto authority kept causing delays.
  • India will be able to advance its interests more effectively.
  • The USSR actually began to boycott the UNSC at one point, and it was during that time that the US was able to pass a resolution ending the Korean War. From that point on, the USSR understood it was pointless to boycott the UN. If any resolution is against them, it must maintain its veto power.
  • Being a permanent member will acknowledge India's emergence as a major global player, ready to contribute significantly to the goals of the Security Council for global peace and security.
  • India will be able to benefit from the "prestige" that comes with having a permanent seat on the council.


  • Lack of Political Will: Although there is a general consensus that the system has to reform, different nations perceive the need for change differently.
  • Coffee Club: Over the past six years, it has been crucial in delaying UN Security Council reforms. It is an informal organisation with 40 or so member states, largely middle-sized governments who oppose greater regional powers gaining permanent seats.
  • Chinese Opposition: China's status as a permanent member prevents India from progressing to that status.

Security Council of the United Nations

  • It is one of the six principal bodies of the UN and works to uphold world peace and security.
  • On January 17, 1946, it conducted its inaugural meeting in Westminster, London.
  • Headquarters is in New York.
  • Membership: There are 15 members of the council.
  • China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States are permanent members with veto power.
  • More than 50 member states of the UN have never been Security Council members.

The UNSC elections

  • Out of a total of 10, the General Assembly elects five non-permanent members each year to serve terms of two years.
  • India's two-year term as a non-permanent member of the Council expires on December 31 of this year.

The following table shows how the 10 non-permanent seats are allocated among the regions:

  • Five for the states of Africa and Asia.
  • One for the nations of Eastern Europe.
  • Two for the Western European and other States; two for the Latin American and Caribbean States
  • Candidate nations must receive a two-thirds vote of the Member States that are present and casting ballots in the Assembly in order to be elected to the Council.

Way Forward

  • Outside of the P5, India has received the most votes for UNSC membership. India may use this position to demonstrate its maturity and determination to be recognised as a responsible global power.
  • India requires a permanent seat at the organization, which was established to uphold international peace, security, and order in order to play a vital and important role.

Read Also : UNSC and India

Source: The Hindu

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