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  • 26 February, 2021

  • 12 Min Read

Inscription on Krishnadevraya’s death (of Vijayanagar) discovered

Inscription on Krishnadevraya’s death (of Vijayanagar) discovered

  • The first-ever epigraphical reference to the date of death of Vijayanagar king Krishnadevaraya has been discovered at Honnenahalli in the Tumakuru district.
  • As per the inscription, Krishnadevaraya, one of the greatest emperors of India who ruled from the South, died on October 17, 1529, Sunday, and incidentally, this day was marked by a lunar eclipse.
  • The inscription (written in Kannada) is engraved on a slab kept on the north side of the Gopalakrishna temple at Honnenahalli in the Tumakuru district.
  • The inscription also registers gift of village Honnenahalli in Tumakuru for conducting worship to the god Veeraprasanna Hanumantha of Tumakuru.

The Vijayanagar Empire (1336-1646 A.D.)

  • Harihara and Bukka are the founders of the Vijayanagar City in 1336 A.D. on the southern banks of Tungabhadr.
  • They made Hampi as the capital city. Hampi is on the banks of Tungabhadra River.
  • They served under Vira Ballala III, the Hoysala King
  • Vijayanagar Empire was ruled by four important dynasties and they are: Sangama, Saluva, Tuluva, Aravidu and Harihara I.
  • In 1336 A.D. Harihara I became the ruler of Sangama Dynasty. He captured Mysore and Madurai.
  • In 1356 A.D. Bukka-I succeeded him

Krishnadeva Raya (1509-1529 A.D.)

  • Krishnadeva Raya of the Tuluva dynasty was the most famous king of the Vijayanagar Empire
  • According to Domingo Paes, a Portuguese traveller “Krishnadeva Raya was the most feared and perfect king there could possibly be”.

Krishnadeva Raya‘s Conquests

  • He conquered Sivasamudram in 1510A.D and Raichur in 1512A.D
  • In 1523 A.D. he captured Orissa and Warangal
  • His empire extended from the river Krishna in the north to River Cauvery in the south; the Arabian Sea in the west to Bay of Bengal in the east.

Significance of Krishnadevaraya

(a) Political

  1. Character: Great miltary ability, imposing personality, high intellectual quality.
  2. He restored the former glory of Vijaynagar empire and even surpassed it.
  3. His was the period of expansion and consolidation. He wrested back Krishna-Godavari delta, defeated an alliance of Bijapur and Odisha and kept Portuguese in check.
  4. He also kept internal law and order.

(b) Cultural

  1. Though a Vaishnavite, he respected all. He was a great patron of Telugu, Tamil and Kannada literature as well as Sanskrit.
  2. Ashtadiggajas (8 eminent scholars) were at his court with Alladi Pesanna (Manuchitram) being the greatest.
  3. He wrote Amukhtamalayada (Telugu) & Sanskrit Jambavati Kalyanam and Ushaparinayam. He was ka Andhra Bhoja.
  4. He was a great builder. He constructed a new town near Hampi named Nagalapuram (after his mother) , Vithhalaswamy and Hazara Ramaswami temples at Vijaynagar and built massive tank there and temples, added many gopurams.

(c) Social

  1. Although the kingdom remained in constant military preparedness, it flourished under unparalleled peace and prosperity.
  2. He give complete religious freedom to his subjects.
  3. Anybody could settle down and move freely in his kingdom without any distinction of religion.

His Contributions

  • An able administrator.
  • He built large tanks and canals for irrigation.
  • He developed the naval power understanding the vital role of overseas trade.
  • He maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese and Arab traders.
  • He increased the revenue of his government.
  • He patronized art and architecture.
  • It was during his period the Vijayanagar Empire reached its zenith of glory.
  • Krishnadeva Raya was a great scholar.
  • Ashtadiggajas: A group of eight scholars adorned his court and they were:
    1. Allasani Peddanna – the author of Manucharitram, he was also known as Andhra Kavitapitamaha’
    2. Nandi Thimmana – the author of Parijathapaharanam
    3. Madayagari Mallana
    4. Dhurjati
    5. Ayyalaraju Ramabhadra Kavi
    6. Pingali Surana
    7. Ramaraja Bhushana
    8. Tenali Ramakrishna

Battle of Talikota (1565 A.D.)

  • The successors of Krishnadeva Raya were weak
  • The combined forces of Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golconda and Bidar declared war on Vijayanagar during the rule of Aliya Rama Raya
  • Aliya Rama Raya was defeated. He and his people were killed mercilessly.
  • Vijayanagar was pillaged and ruined.

Contribution to Architecture and Literature

  • The Hazara Ramasami temple and Vittalaswamy temple was built during this period
  • The bronze image of Krishnadeva Raya is a masterpiece.
  • Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu and Kannada literature were developed.
  • Sayana wrote commentaries on Vedas.
  • Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada in Telugu and Usha Parinayam and Jambavathi Kalyanam in Sanskrit.

The decline of the Empire

  • The rulers of the Aravidu dynasty were weak and incompetent.
  • Many provincial governors became independent.
  • The rulers of Bijapur and Golconda seized some areas of Vijayanagar.

Source: TH

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