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  • 24 December, 2022

  • 7 Min Read

Kunming Montreal Biodiversity Framework (GBF) adopted

Kunming Montreal Biodiversity Framework (GBF) adopted at COP15

  • The UN Convention on Biological Diversity's 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) has accepted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF).
  • 188 of 196 member governments agreed on a new framework to halt the sharp and steady loss of biological species.
  • These governments, supported by the U.S. and the Vatican, who are not a party to the Convention, adopted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) that sets out four goals for 2050, and 23 targets for 2030, to save existing biodiversity and ensure that 30% of degraded terrestrial, inland water, coastal and marine ecosystems come under effective restoration.
  • At the U.N. biodiversity conference, India pressed for the creation of a new fund to stop biodiversity loss.
  • In Montreal, Canada, the U.N. biodiversity conference came to an end.

Outcomes of Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), CoP 15:

  • By 2030, reduce pollution risks and adverse effects from all sources to levels safe for biodiversity and ecosystem functions.
  • Reduce the global footprint of consumption by 2030, in part by cutting back on waste production, overconsumption, and food waste.
  • Stop known species from going extinct, and by 2050, tenfold the risk and rate of extinction for all species (including unknown)
  • By 2030, cut the danger from pesticides by at least 50%.
  • By 2030, cut the amount of nutrients lost to the environment by at least 50%.
  • At least $500 billion (one billion = 100 crore) in yearly environmental subsidies, such as those for the production of fossil fuels, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, must be eliminated.

About Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) :

  • The agreement to implement the GBF was pushed through on December 18 by the Chinese conference presidency and host Canada in the face of objections from some African countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, and Uganda.
  • The draft Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), will replace the Aichi Biodiversity Targets 2020.

It sets out targets for 2030 on:

  • protection for degraded areas,
  • resource mobilization for conservation,
  • compensation for countries that preserve biodiversity,
  • halting human activity linked to species extinction,
  • reducing by half the spread of invasive alien species (introduced plants and animals that affect endemic biodiversity),
  • cutting pollution to non-harmful levels and
  • minimizing climate change impact and ocean acidification, among others.
  • The GBF goals and targets do not prohibit the use of biodiversity, but call for sustainable use, and a sharing of benefits from genetic resources.
  • Agricultural practices also find a strong focus. Besides emphasizing sustainable practices in agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries, and forestry, the agreement calls upon members to adopt biodiversity-supporting methods such as agroecology and sustainable intensification.
  • One target also looks at turning cities into hosts of biodiversity. Urban planning should also be biodiversity-inclusive, “enhancing native biodiversity, ecological connectivity and integrity, and improving human health and well-being and connection to nature.”
  • The GBF emphasises respect for the rights of indigenous communities that traditionally protect forests and biodiversity, and their involvement in conservation efforts. It advocates similar roles for women and local communities.

The key aspects of the four GBF goals for 2050 are:

  • maintaining ecosystem integrity and health to halt extinctions,
  • measuring and valuing ecosystem services provided by biodiversity,
  • sharing monetary and non-monetary gains from genetic resources and ,
  • digital sequencing of genetic resources with indigenous people and local communities, and
  • raising resources for all countries to close a biodiversity finance gap of an estimated $700 billion.

National Strategies to be adopted as per GBF:

  • Member nations need to submit a revised and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan in the conference to be held in 2024.
  • Further, the parties to the CBD should submit national reports in 2026 and 2029 to help prepare global reviews. High-level discussions on the progress reviews should be held in 2024 and 2026.
  • Businesses and industries, including transnational corporations would have to assess, monitor, and report the risks and impacts of their operations and portfolios. They must provide information for sustainable consumption and comply with the rules on benefit-sharing. Perverse incentives that affect biodiversity should be eliminated.

Funding arrangements planned as per GBF:

  • By 2030, the GBF hopes to see at least $200 billion raised per year from all sources — domestic, international, public and private — towards implementation of the national action plans.
  • In terms of international funding, developing countries should get at least $20 billion a year by 2025 and at least $30 billion by 2030 through contributions from developed countries.
  • The Global Environment Facility (GEF), a multilateral body that partners with countries and agencies, has been asked to establish in 2023, and until 2030, a Special Trust Fund to support the implementation of the GBF.

India's Position:

  • To assist developing nations in successfully implementing a post-2020 global framework to prevent and reverse biodiversity loss, it is urgently necessary to establish a new and dedicated fund.
  • India claims that because poor nations are primarily responsible for carrying out the goals for biodiversity preservation, they need enough financing and technology transfer.

Common but Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR)

  • Given that climate change has an impact on the natural world, biodiversity conservation must also be based on CBDR.
  • India emphasized the urgent need to establish a brand-new, special fund to assist poor nations in effectively putting into place a post-2020 global framework to stop and reverse biodiversity loss.
  • The only source of money for biodiversity conservation is still the Global Environment Facility, which supports numerous accords like the UNFCCC and the UN Convention to Combat Desertification.
  • The GBF's goals and objectives should be challenging but yet realistic and doable.
  • India opposes cutting back on agricultural subsidies and diverting the money saved to biodiversity preservation.
  • Biodiversity conservation: This calls for the holistic, integrated protection and restoration of ecosystems.


  • States have "shared but diverse obligations in light of the different contributions to global environmental deterioration," according to the definition of CBDR.

About Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD):

  • The Biodiversity Convention is the informal name for the CBD.
  • It is an international agreement.
  • 196 countries have accepted the CBD, a legally binding agreement to conserve biodiversity, which has been in effect since 1993.
  • It lays out rules for nations to safeguard sustainable use, encourage just and equitable benefit sharing, and save biodiversity.
  • Montreal, Canada serves as the home of the Convention on Biological Diversity's (SCBD) Secretariat.
  • Ratification: 196 countries have ratified it.
  • The only UN member state that has not ratified the convention is the United States.
  • The Conference of Parties (COP) refers to the periodical meetings of the Parties (Countries) to the CBD.
  • Earlier, the CBD had launched the Aichi biodiversity targets for 2020, which included safeguarding of all ecosystems that provide services for humanity’s survival, and the Nagoya Protocol which went into effect in 2014 to ensure sharing of biodiversity access and benefits.

About CBD agreements:

  • The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, a supplement to the Convention, was approved in 2000. It becomes effective on September 11, 2003.
  • An International agreement called the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity regulates the transfer of living modified organisms (LMOs) brought about by contemporary biotechnology from one nation to another.
  • Another addendum to the Convention on Biological Diversity is the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits arising from their Utilization (ABS).
  • The COP-10 also approved a ten-year action plan for all nations to follow in order to preserve biodiversity.
  • The Aichi Targets for biodiversity are a collection of 20 challenging but attainable goals that are officially known as the "Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020."

The Biological Diversity Act was passed by India in 2002 to implement the CBD's provisions.

Way Forward

  • The provision of financial resources to parties from poor countries requires the development of a fresh, special procedure.
  • Agriculture serves as the primary economic engine for rural people in developing countries, and the vital support given to these industries cannot be changed. the emphasis should be on avoiding agricultural subsidies.
  • Instead of opting for nature-based solutions, ecosystem methods to biodiversity protection need to be used

Source: The Hindu

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