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  • 05 October, 2022

  • 6 Min Read

Nanomaterials' role in resolving environmental problem

Nanomaterials' role in resolving environmental problems

  • The application of contemporary technology, such as nanomaterials or Carbon Dots (CD), may provide remedies for environmental problems like water contamination.
  • The integrity of the aquatic environment has been harmed by the entry of poisonous and hazardous contaminants into waterbodies as a result of modern society's urbanisation.
  • New technological advancements like nanotechnology offer creative answers for effective and sustainable environmental remediation.

Nanotechnology: What is it?

  • About: The study of physical phenomena and creation of novel materials and devices with physical sizes between 1 and 100 nanometers constitute the field of nanotechnology (nm).
  • Almost every aspect of our life is impacted by nanotechnology, including manufacturing, electronics, computers, and information technology, as well as industries including agriculture, medicine, the environment, and energy storage.
  • India's involvement in nanotechnology has been marked by a broad group of stakeholders, each with their own goals and responsibilities.
  • Currently, government-led initiatives are the main drivers of nanotechnology in India. Participation by the industry only lately began.
  • With a few notable exceptions, public universities and research institutions are where the majority of nanotechnology research and development is conducted.

About Describe Carbon Dots (CDs):

  • One of the newest members of the family of carbon nanomaterials are Carbon Dots (CDs).
  • They have an average diameter of fewer than 10 nanometers and were found in 2004.
  • The outstanding optical characteristics of CDs vary uniquely depending on the synthesis precursor.
  • Because they make good electron donors and acceptors, they are becoming more and more sought-after as candidates in applications including sensing and bioimaging.
  • Bioimaging refers to techniques that allow non-invasive real-time visualisation of biological processes.
  • Additionally, CDs are reasonably priced, very biocompatible, and environmentally benign.

Role of CDs in Managing Environmental Issues

Pollution Detection:

  • For the identification of environmental contaminants using fluorescence and colorimetry, CDs are a fantastic option.
  • Because of their strong fluorescence emission, they are frequently utilised as fluorescent nanoprobes for pollution detection.
  • They also make it possible to use the colorimetric approach to detect contaminants that change colour.
  • Contaminant Adsorption: The technology's compact size and high specific surface area enable the provision of numerous surfaces as adsorption sites.
  • Water Treatment: Since CDs are promising nano-fillers in the construction of thin-film nanocomposite membranes, where they can create chemical interactions with other chemicals, they can also be effective for water treatment.
  • Waste from water hyacinths was used to make CDs; these CDs fluoresced green when exposed to UV light. They have also been shown to be luminous sensors for troublesome pesticides in aquatic bodies.
  • Pollutant Degradation: By offering a cutting-edge method for subsequent-generation photocatalysis, the technique can also be helpful for pollutant degradation.
  • The term "photocatalysis" refers to chemical reactions that utilise light and a semiconductor.
  • Carbon dots serve as a photosensitizer, whereas organic contaminants in contaminated water can operate as electron and hole transporting agents.
  • Antimicrobial: Physical/mechanical destruction, oxidative stress, photocatalytic activity, and suppression of bacterial metabolism are the principal antimicrobial mechanisms of CDs.
  • Under visible or natural light, CDs in contact with the bacteria cell could effectively produce reactive oxygen species.
  • Deoxyribnucleioc acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) damage from this can lead to the death of bacteria.

What is Carbon Dot Green Synthesis Categorization?

  • In general, "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches can be used to synthesise carbon dots.
  • The top-down strategy uses laser ablation, arc discharge, and chemical or electrochemical oxidation to reduce massive carbon structures into quantum-sized carbon dots.
  • In the bottom-up approach, CDs are created by pyrolyzing, carbonising, hydrothermally processing, or microwave-assisted synthesising small molecule precursors.


Source: Down To Earth

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