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  • 08 June, 2021

  • 8 Min Read

Performance Grading Index (PGI)- Analysis

Performance Grading Index (PGI)- Analysis


  • High-performing States with good schools can nudge others if they have the political will

Performance Grading Index (PGI)

  • The Union Education Ministry has been attempting to get States into a competitive mode in upgrading their school education system by recognising progress with a Performance Grading Index (PGI) that assigns them a score.
    • It can be argued that countries and State governments use school education as a transformative tool most effectively where the political imperative is strong.
  • The Centre’s effort with the PGI scoring system has been to try and nudge all States using a hall of fame approach.
  • The score is derived using databases on 70 parameters such as: access, equity, governance processes, infrastructure and facilities, and learning outcomes that are mostly self-reported by the States but vetted by the Centre, with National Achievement Survey data also being incorporated.

About PGI:

  • The PGI for States and Union Territories was first published in 2019 with reference year 2017-18.

Implementing Agency:

  • It is initiated by the Department of School Education and Literacy (DoSEL).


  • The information on the indicators are drawn from data available with:
    • the DoSEL from the Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE),
    • National Achievement Survey (NAS) of NCERT,
    • Mid Day Meal website,
    • Public Financial Management System (PFMS) and
    • the information uploaded by the States and UTs on the Shagun portal of DoSEL.


  • The PGI is structured in two categories- Outcomes and Governance & Management and comprises 70 indicators in aggregate with a total weightage of 1000.
  • Domains:
    • Access,
    • Infrastructure & Facilities,
    • Equity,
    • Governance process.

PGI findings:

  • In the latest set of scores and grades for the pre-COVID-19 year, 2019-20, the Andaman and Nicobar islands, Chandigarh, Kerala, Punjab and Tamil Nadu have performed the best, although they still fall short of the 951-1,000 points slab, the highest possible.
  • 33 States and Union Territories that their PGI scores have improved over the previous year.
  • Andaman and Nicobar, Punjab and Arunachal Pradesh, by a noteworthy 20%. (Highest improvement)
  • Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh actually regressed, although the PGI scheme is now three years old.
  • The PGI scores show that the southern and western States are on firm ground to achieve this, while those in central India and parts of the east and Northeast are less resourced.

Increase in transparency

  • The Centre, with its transparent scores and data for each parameter and sub-topic made available in the public domain
  • It seeks to create a resource-sharing system that low-performing States can tap into.

Need for coordination

  • It can work only if governments and Opposition parties see value in strong and open school education
  • To strengthen access, equity and infrastructure by budgeting fees and funds for universalisation.

Japan model:

  • It is such commitment that led Southeast Asia to carry out a renaissance in school education in the later decades of the last century, on the lines of Meiji-era Japan.

Way forward

  • Further progress on all parameters will depend on bridging the gaps, particularly on digital tools, infrastructure and subsidies for access.
  • What is evident from the Education Ministry analysis is that governance processes are the weakest link in some States.
  • A new deal for schools can transform them as the Right to Education law envisages.

Source: TH


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