08 January, 2020
3 Min Read
Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
Prelims and Mains focus: about India’s aim of becoming a $5 trillion economy; TFP and how it impacts the economy
News: The slowdown has revived interest in India’s growth rate as it aspires to become a $5 trillion economy. This would require growing at 8% in real terms, along with a 0.7% rise in total factor productivity (TFP).
What are the factors for economic growth?
What is total factor productivity?
How has India’s TFP growth evolved over the years?
As per the Total Economy Database (TED), India’s adjusted GDP growth in 2005 was 9%, while TFP growth was 3.5%; in 2006, growth was 9.3% and TFP growth 3.3%; in 2007, the figures were 10.1% and 3.1%, respectively. Evidently, growth came with a substantial improvement in TFP. In 2016 India’s TFP growth was 3.5%, in 2017 it was 1.6% and in 2018 it was 2.4%.
What is the global trend on TFP growth?
Since 2008, TFP growth has been slower for most nations; for China it has been negative since 2012. TED and Federal Reserve Economic Data on TFP and GDP growth show most economies with 8% or higher growth had TFP growth above 3%. These countries also saw a substantial rise in private capital formation in that period. Recent evidence indicates TFP might impact GDP growth more than fixed capital. Better TFP does seem to have a positive impact on growth of an economy, whether emerging or developed.
What are the factors affecting TFP?
India can improve its TFP by undertaking bold market and structural reforms that will unshackle its productive capacity, stuck in the primary sector of the economy. Such reforms can cause reallocation of land and labour from primary to other sectors of the economy, thus enhancing productivity. Investments in physical infrastructure such as highways, dedicated freight corridors, and human capital will also increase TFP.
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